A Study of Loetz Cut Glass Production

A Study of Loetz Cut Glass Production

                                                                                             by Dr. K. M. Hasselbach

 

Introduction into Loetz cutting Glass History.

Very little is known about Loetz cut decorated glass production. In the current literature this aspect is nearly neglected, though it must have been a considerable part of the total production output. Julius Fahndt characterizes in the 1901 edition of his  'Glass Address Book' [Ricke,I. page 33] the Loetz facilities at Klostermuehle by 'two ovens, 23 pots, wood fireing using the Siemens system, cutting store with 36 work benches, own refinery, 3 painting stores with 30 painters, a total of 150 employes ...'. Herefrom it becomes clear, that there were more cutting (36) then painting (30) facilities. Of course, the cutting was needed e.g. for grinding down glass vessels to a specified size or to polish out the 'pontil', the part left over where the glass was attached to an iron rod, when working the top rim. There must have been larger excess valencies for cutting décors, but from this and earlier periods, nothing is yet known, in contrast to the many enameled items that survived. In the early 'Art Nouveau' period, see [Hass], there was very large competition in between the bohemian glass companies. Outstanding with respect to glass and intaglio cutting were Harrach at Neuwelt, Moser at Meierhoefen near Karlsbad, Meyr's Neffe at Adolf near Winterberg and the Schaffgotsche' Josephinen-Huette at Schreiberhau, not to mention Baccarat, France, Webb and Stevens&Williams at Stourbridge, Great Britain or St.Louis, Belgium. Each of these companies made their own, significant contributions to the most advanced cutting decoration of glass. Nothing comparable was ever seen from Loetz, though its contribution of hot shaped glass to 'Art Nouveau' was not reached by any of these competitors. One reason might have been, that Loetz concentrated on its sucessfull iridized glass mainly and used cutting only in a tradional bohemian decorating fashion, such that it is up to now assigned to other Bohemian companies and refineries like Muehlhaus, Eiselt or Oertel&Co. Another problem might have been the lack of highly qualified cutting masters. Max von Spaun complaines in a letter to the director of the 'Austrian Museum of Art and Industry', in which he acknowledges the outstanding delivery of some items, [Neuw,I. page 254] '... the engraver needs longer time. It is difficult, as there were no engravers trained, that have any idea at all of engraving a flower nor ...'.

 

1.011.011.021.02

 

 

 

One rare example of intaglio cut gilded décor is the M. Kirchner vase PN=II/4867 (1907) shown in 1.01-02. The artfull decoration might have been applied by some other bohemian refinery, too.

 

 

 

Methodology of Identification

 

To assign cut glass to Loetz the following elements have been considered:

  1. Paper patterns
  2. Shape, homology and general characteristics
  3. Décor and ornamentation
  4. Colour and colour combinations
  5. Signatures and marks
  6. Co-production and commissions
  7. Quality and style
  8. Documented museum pieces
  9. Contemporary photos and articles

Of course, attributions based on limited information can never be as reliable as those included in the published collection of Loetz paper patterns [Ricke,II] and [Lnen,II]. Therefore items identified by their PNs are the preferred reference in this monograph. Nevertheless there is still some possibility of misattribution relying on shape similarity only.

 

Early Loetz cut glass

Up to now nothing is known about 'Early Loetz' cut glass in the last quater of the 19.th century. In a first attempt [Hass] assigned vase 0.01 based on its similarity to other 'Early Loetz' productions. For details please read my article 'An attempt to assign Early Loetz production from 1880-1897' on this web site. The vases 0.01-0.05 have same shape and the light blue and light green vases are both décorated by the famous 'Russian' cutting pattern, firstly patented in the USA in 1882 by Phillip McDonald when working with Hawkes and lateron widely used by many other companies. It is rarely found, that besides the fine cutting an enamelling of rich 'Rococo Revival' sccrollworks is applied throughout. On a first sight, these vases might be assigned to Moser, too. But as Moser started his own glass production not before 1895, up to then he used blanks from various other bohemian companies for refinement. As Loetz employed more cutters than painters, it is close at hands -besides many other reasons - to assume that Loetz décorated these vases itself.

0.010.010.020.02

0.030.030.040.04

In the pink vase the cutting opens a window in the stem and décorates the bulbous body.

0.050.05

 

Loetz cut glass at the World Exhibition Paris 1900

At the 1900 World Exhibition in Paris Max von Spaun presented the most advanced vases in the newly developed 'Phenomen Genre' décor, designed by Franz Hofstoetter, winning a 'Grand Prix' and thereby laying the foundation for the future successfull expansion of the Loetz art glass production.

1.031.031.041.041.051.051.061.06

 

 

 

Whereas in 1.03 PN=II/379 (1900) and 1.06 PN=7465 (1898) the threedimensional appearence of the leafes seems to be accentuated by cutting only, the flowers of 1.04 PN=II/406 and especially the deeply cut ornament of 1.05 PN=II/380 form an integral part of the décor. 1.03,1.05 and 1.06 are scanned from [Ricke,I.124.94,125.95,115.78] and 1.04 from [Mergl,101.46]. In the following years Loetz concentrated on hot schaped glass and explored more and more complex irisation patterns, cut ornaments were not futher applied nor developped.

 

 

 

 

Cut Vases known from Paper Patterns.

 

The relevance of the paper patterns (PNs) is extensively discussed in [Ricke,I.;Hass].These published paper patterns [Ricke,II] and [Lnen,II] are the primary source for identifying Loetz glass. Sadly, for the period 1885-1936 only 11 paper patterns out of the survived 7171 PNs, put together in 2.01-02 from [Ricke,II], have cutting specifications. One paper pattern with PN=III/4986-99 (1930), showing also two sketches of cut parfume bottles, is not included here.

2.012.01

 

The appearence of the 12 vases of Series III (1914-24) made acording to these paper patterns - either in 'Kristall, Saphir, Amethyst or Topas, hohl geschaelt' - must have been very similar to the well known hollow/panel face cutted vases of Moser or from Josephinen-Huette and might still wrongly be assigned to one of them.

2.022.02 2.02 A2.02 A


In [Ricke,II. page 589] there are four and in [Lnen,I] there is another advertizing Loetz sheets of paper patterns published, these are photographed directly from the book by the author and presented here, too. The 1.st two show Ausf-276 (1927) 'Kristall mit verschiedenfarbigen Luestern und matten Blumenschliff 333', here in 2.03 and in the following the shapes are referenced by their PN's (1912-27) below each vase.

2.032.03

 

2.03 A2.03 A

 

2.042.04

 

 

 

2.04 shows a earlier cutting décor of ~1920 with shapes (1912-1923) and 2.05 a 'Schliff 367' from 1927 on one shape of various sizes. This vase is shown again in 3.05.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

loetz-cut-2.05loetz-cut-2.05

2.062.06

 

 

 

Finally in 2.06 the 'Schliff 249' applied onto a toilett garniture is given. The bottom star is always explicitly drawn. From the documented 'Schliff numbers' it is obvious, that there must have been a cutting reference book at Loetz (similar to the paper patterns) containing sketches of the uniquely numbered cutting décors - the largest décor number currently known is 367 - and this book seems to be lost.

 

 

 

 

 

 

From the 'Loetz Musterschnitte' collected in [Ricke,II] only 20 shapes are documented for the years 1930-1936, the PN's ranging from 5122-6529. This reveals the large number of still unknown shapes in the late Loetz production period.

 

Examples of Loetz cut glass.

 

After the very successful 'Art Nouveau' period, dominated by iridized glass, Loetz looked ~1904 for other methods of decoration and introduced new glass types like 'Ophir, Titania' or 'Tango' glass besides many others. In the 'Laurus' décor, the red apples are shaped by cut bul-eyes, that were coloured red. One example is shown in 2.07 PN=II/1449 (1904), others may be visited under the 'Décor Index' on this web-site.

2.072.07

Especially Adolf Beckert, who became in 1909 director of Loetz, forced orientation into a new direction of decoration by establishing fluoric acid etched decoration. His designs are outstanding examples for this newly introduced production, much simpler is e.g. the neo-classical 'Etrusk' series. For the market Loetz established ~1920 a mass production of etched vases 'À Gallé' sold under various names like 'Richard, Veles, Lucidus, S.Pumoulid, S.Ramillay, C.Huilay' [Lnen.I, page 63] as well as under its own name 'Ca Loetz' or just 'Loetz'. The important aspect here is, that Loetz combined cut and etched decors together on one item, many examples of which will be shown in the following. About 1925 the largest part of the Loetz production consisted out of coloured-cut-to-clear overlayglass, produced mainly for export. As there was not enough capacity for cutting available at Klostermuehle, Loetz established in 1925 another cutting place at Unterreichenstein together with Jos. Schuster&Co [Lnen, page 60] to satisfy the demand for traditionally bohemian cut glass and marked it mainly to Europe under 'Cristallerie de Turn'. This company decorated Loetz blancs up to the beginning 1930's. The basic colours included ruby, blue, amethyst and amber overlayed blancs, typically having a thickness at the rim of about 5-6 mm increasing to the bottom to 10 mm, allowing for deeper décor cutting. The following 5 examples of this period, taken by photographs from the excellent book of W. Neuwirth [Neuw,I] are shown in 3.01-05. Analyzing carefully the cutting pattern of 3.01 one may detect an interesting Loetz specific feature: The deep miters of one part of the décor - here a star - are crossed by miters of another part - here a diagonal cross, or a vertical fence - and in the following I will refer to this feature as 'Loetz crossing miters'.

3.013.013.043.04

 

3.023.023.053.05

3.033.03

 

The décor of 3.01 is similar to 'cut 241' in 2.06 and the shape of vase 3.05 matches 2.05. The bottom of each vase is decorated by a cut star or by more complex patterns with hobstars and fans separated by miters.

 

Loetz cut glass presented at the 'Werkbund' exhibition at Vienna, 1914.

 

Contemporary articles illustrated by photos are of great value on identifying and assigning Loetz glass. There exist some photos at the Loetz archive showing cut glass presented at the 'Werkbund' exhibition at Vienna, 1914. The vase 4.01, also shown in [Ricke,I.page 278.338], is a rare example of a cut vase designed by Dagobert Peche, and the rather diffuse photo 4.02 from [Ricke.I, page 267] displays a excellent drinking set, possibly designed by Josef Hoffman.

 4.014.014.024.02

 

 4.034.03

 

The vase 4.03 is also taken from [Ricke,I. page 269.322], it was designed by Josef Hoffmann PN=II/5220 (1907), it combines etched square surfaces with cut bull-eyes. These three contributions demonstrate clearly, that Loetz could easily compete in the high end 'Art Déco' cut glass with other Bohemian refineries as Oertel&Co, Carl Schappel or Carl Meltzer&Co. Another fine vase, designed by Hans Bolek PN= II/259 (1913) crystal with dark blue and cut arches, comissioned by the 'Austrian Werkbund' is shown in 4.04.

 4.044.04

 

 

Early iridized and cut glass.

 

Besides the pieces shown at the Paris 1900 World Exhibition only few examples are known, where Loetz combined iridized glass with a cut décor as in 5.01.

5.015.015.025.02

 

The PN=II/8209 (1912) taken from [Lnen,II] is shown in 5.02 and describes the vase as 'Cristall Goldiris' - having an iridized 'Candia' overlay over crystal clear glass - and the applied cutting as 'Schliff No 30'. The low number of this cutting No 30 suggests, that Loetz started systematically numbering cutting décors rather late, or possibly used a different numbering system before 1912, or - what seems reasonable - did nearly no cutting at all before 1912.

5.035.03

 

 5.045.04

 

An exception is the very early vase 5.03 carrying the first phenomen décor Gre-166 PN=I/7474 (1898), where the feathers are accentuated by cut outlines similar to 1.03 and 1.06. Another example with a cut décor on Gre-6893 (1898) is shown in 5.04, a vase obviously produced to fit into a montur, as there is no pontil and the top rim is polished. Wether the cutting was originally applied by Loetz, or much later, to hide damages due to the ormolu, remains unclear.

5.055.05

 

 

A simple cut décor of a flower is applied by Loetz onto the iridized orange-red vase 5.05.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cutting combined with etched glass

 

As already stated above, Loetz widely used etched décors in combination with cutting. In contrast to the examples in 3, these vase are made out of relatively thin overlay glass, typically the glass of a vase measures at the top rim 2.5-3.5 mm increasing up to 5 mm to the bottom. The cutting therefore consisted of flat curved miter, panels and bull-eyes. There are 8 examples exhibited at the Passau Glass Museum (PGM) and they are shown in 6.01-03. All vases show an etched band of either wild roses, oak leafes or fruits and cut panels above and/or below it. Vase 6.05 PN=III/2411 (1925) in 2.03 and in the background of 6.01 shows the details more clearly.

6.016.016.026.02

 

6.036.03

 6.056.05

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The two vases in front of 6.01 nearly match PN=III/3637 (1927) of 2.02 and the vase in the background of 6.03 has a shape seen often with differing décors as in 7.01, 10.01 and 11.01.

The collection of vases 6.04 are exhibited in the Museum Sumavy, Kaperske Hory, Czech Republic. The upper middle and the vase on the lower part at the right side are made in a similar style like 6.01-03.

6.046.04 

 

But one must bear in mind, that Kralik produced quite similar vases and care has to be taken, not to use 6.04 uncritically. From the known 31 Kralik paper patterns 6.06, one must conclude, that in the top row of 6.04 the 3.rd vase left actually is Kralik PN=6037, the large vase 3.rd from right is PN=5676/1, and in the bottom row the 2.nd and 3.rd from the right side are Kralik décors PN=5342/5 and 5322/4 too.

 

 6.066.06

 

 

The vase 7.01 matches the shape already seen in 6.03, but here the red outer layer covers a light 'Anna' green uranium glass as is seen in the 'Loetz' signed vase 7.02, too. The vase 7.01A PN=III/978 (1919) and bowl 7.02A PN=III/2410 (1925) repeats the décor of 7.01 on clear glass.

7.017.017.01 A7.01 A 7.027.02

7.02 A7.02 A 

7.037.03

For comparison purpose the purely ruby-red-cut-to-clear Kralik vase 7.03 PN=5322/4 in 6.06, it matches the shape as well as the cut/etched décor of the 3.rd left vase -executed in blue over crystal - in the bottom row of the showcase in 6.04. The etched motiv reminds onto décors designed by the 'Glasfachschule Haida'.

The vases 8.01-05, 9.01-02 and 10.01 exhibit all the same geometrically etched décor of dark blue, ruby red or light green glass on crystall, respectively. Small triangles or squares are cut out and polished. 8.01 and 10.01 are PN=III/1146 (1920) and 8.02 is PN=III/8441, the shape indicated in 2.06 left 2.nd lowest row vase. The two vases 8.04-05 resemble the shape of 8.02, but without bottom attachment.

 8.018.018.028.028.038.038.048.048.058.05

Here I would like to recomend reading the excellent article 'Loetz Cameo and Acid Cutback Decoration' by Warren R. Galle, Jr., also published on this web-site, where some of these vases were discussed in another context, too.

9.019.01

 

 

9.029.02 

10.0110.01 

The vase 11.01 has again the same shape as 6.03, 8.01 and here the petales of a tulip are accentuated by cutting out of the blue etched flower, the décor is much better seen in the wonderful bowl 11.02, the shape nearly matching 3.04 or the bowl on the upper board of 6.04.

11.0111.01

11.0211.02 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Similarly made is 11.03 showing a ruby basket with 'lily of the valley' flowers

 11.0311.03

In 12 the vases and the bowl follow the flower theme of 11.01 but show a cut thistle. 12.02 is an detail enlargement of 12.01 that gives a good impression of the etched part and structured background, as well as of the bevel cut and polished petales, the leafes of the flower and the bull-eyes around the top rim. The PN~III/164 (1906) [Ricke,I, page 586].

 

12.0112.01 12.0212.02

12.0312.0312.0412.04 

 

Loetz vases décorated by cut rims only

Vase 13.01 is covered by dark blue etched flowers - known from Loetz vases signed 'Richard' - and only both rims are decorated by cutted parts. 13.0113.01

Similarly in the vase 13.02 designed by Hans Bolek PN=III/1054 (1920) the main décor is etched as well as the 'Loetz' signature and only the top rim is shaped by cutting.

13.0213.02

 

 

Some examples of purely cut decorated vases.

Similarly shaped bowls as 13.01, but standing on three clear glass spheres and the body decorated by cutting only are seen in 14.01-02 PN~III/918 (1918). 14.01 has an interestingly decorated top rim seen again in 19.01-02 and 20.03. The second bowl is decorated by a cut frieze of crystal clear lily of the valley with light green leafes, contrasting to the dark blue sky PN=III/616 (1915) see [Ricke,I page 586].

14.0114.0114.0214.02

 

 

 

 

 

 

Of similar shape PN=III/918 (1919) are the two bowls 14.03-04, the simple cutting repeats the threefold symetry defined by the three applied spherical feet.

14.0314.0314.0414.04

 

The vase 15.01 PN=II/8030 (1911) designed by Josef Hoffmann has 'Thea' yellow flowers and ornaments on a black contrasting foreground and is displayed at the PGM, too.

 15.0115.0116.0116.01

 

 

Sky-blue-cut-to-'Thea' is the vase 16.01 PN=III/1119 (1920). The décor made of thumb-prints only, harmonizes with the three sphere stand. The colour combination of blue/yellow is quite often found in Loetz cut items.

 

Blumenschliff 333

Three examples of the 'Blumenschliff 333' (1927) see pattern 2.03 in dark blue over crystal - with an enlargement of the cut rose - are presented in 17.01-09, as they are not enclosed in 2.03 and have no 'Luester' irisation, nor the top rim decoration as sketched in 2.03, they are different from the Ausf-276 execution mentioned in the advertzing sheet and discussed below.

17.0117.0117.0217.02

 

17.0317.03

 

17.0417.04

The 'Blumenschliff' applied to 17.04 shows a more simplyfied rose flower and 17.06 a simplier foliation - the arrangement remembering onto 2.04 - as compared to 17.01-03,05,07.

17.0517.0517.0617.06

17.0717.07

 

The shape of 17.05,06 -in various sizes - is already seen in 8.03 PN=II/8441 and 17.06 is one of the largest Loetz vases known, it measures H=34.5, Do=24 cm and weights 2.6 kg. The intaglio cut 'Blumenschliff' variant is centered by two bands of thumbprints and crosshatched areas. The small vase 17.07 with PN=II/8655 referenced in 2.03 resembles 17.03, but cut to clear from a ruby red flashed glass.

 

The bowl 17.08 repeats the shape of 7.02A and the 'Blumenschnitt' is executed on dark green over topas glass, another example of the variety of Loetz colour combinations. The vivid emerald green vase 17.09 is decorated by the simplified 'Blumenschnitt' known from 17.04 and does not have the thumbprints arround the mouth as compared to 17.04-08.

17.0817.0817.0917.09

 

 

 

 

Ausf-276

Loetz Ausf-276 is only known from 2.02 and 2.02A, it is not mentioned in [Ricke,II] nor [Lnen,II], the décor consists out of 'Blumenschliff 333' applied to clear glass and coloured by irisation, in contrast to 17.01-09 where the 'Schliff 333' is applied to clear glass coloured by an outer layer of glass. The vases 17.10 with shape PN=III/355 and 17.11 PN=III/2209 show both a purple irisation, they both have the same rim décorations, also a part of the décor Ausf-276.

17.1017.1017.1117.11

 

Schliff 249 and related items

18.01 illustrates a more deeply cut décor like the examples in 3, the shape of the tall vase is similar to PN=II/8125 (1912) by Josef Hoffmann. As this type of cutting was widely used by many Bohemian refineries, the vase could have been

decorated by other producers as well.

18.0118.01

The similarly shaped vase 18.02-03 PN=II/2272/343 is décorated by 'Schliff 249' as shown in the paper patterns 2.06. All vases in 18 are made of thick glass coloured by an outer layer and decorated by deeply cut patterns.

18.0218.0218.0318.03

18.03 shows a related vase of same shape with a cut bird sitting on a branch and 18.04 resembles this popular shape décorated by a geometrically cut to clear layer of cobalt blue glass surface.

18.0418.0418.04 A18.04 A18.0518.05

 

The central yellow parfume bottle of 18.05 matches PN=1385/5 of the toilett garnitur in 2.06 showing examples of 'Schliff 249'. The two red bowls are cut similarly and show the characteritic 'Loetz cutting miters' of a 3.06. The intricate cuttingt of plate 18.06 fitts to the red bowls in 18.05 accordingly. Another variant of Schliff 249 my be seen in 21.03. 

18.0618.06

 

 

18.0718.07

The bowl 18.07 with a fine ormulu of two dragonflies resting at the top rim resembles partly the cutting already seen in 18.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Floral cutting décors

In 19.01 we meet again another often cut décor, here in ruby red glass on the well known shape of 8.01 and 12.03 PN=III/1146 (1920). The same cutting is applied to 20.01-02 PN~III/787 in 2.03 or III/858 (1916) of Michael Powolny, a crystal vase having an outer dark blue and an inner yellow case as well as a yellow stem, a colour combination known from 16.01 and seen again in 21.01-02, 22.01 and similarly in 24-26.

19.0119.01

 

20.0120.01

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The cutting of the top and arround the foot - clearly seen in 20.02 - a characteristique Loetz pattern, was applied to 14.01 and 19.01, too.

20.0220.02

The same cut ruby-red-to-clear is applied to the threefooted vase 20.03, the shape already known from 14.01-02. Another newly assigned dècor of wine foliage with grapes is presented in 20.04 cut into a ruby red flashed glass of PN=III/355 (1915). The foliage of 'Blumenschliff 333' in 17.01-11 and the cutting of the leafes in 20.01-04 all show a characteristic common pattern of nearly parallel cut stripes seen again in 37.

20.0320.0320.0420.04

 

 

 

 

Other cutting décors

The dark blue/yellow colour combination over crystal clear is used in 21.01-02 and 22.01. The applied cutting and intaglio of the tiny flowers remember onto 1.

21.0121.01

 

21.0221.02

 

 

21.0321.03The vase 21.03 with shape PN=III/355 (1914) shows a variant of 'Schliff 249', documented in 2.06 and similarly applied to the rainbow vase 30.01, here again on a combination of 'Anna'-yellow/dark blue glass. The cutting consists out of crossed meters, topped by fans and hobstars in the centers and show the characteritic 'Loetz cutting miters' of 3.06. The rim décoration is similar to 14.01-02 and 19.01, 20.01 and 35.01.

The three vases 22.01-02 and 23.01 share the same shape and cutting, but the latter is made of red over orange glass and both exhibit a cut bottom star.

22.0122.0122.0222.0223.0123.01

 

In the series 24.01-26.02 the dark blue outer case appears nearly black and the inner case is made of 'Mandarin yellow' spreading glass. The shape of 24.01 is similar to PN=II/8122-8123 (1912) by Josef Hoffmann and the cutting of 25.01 nearly repeats the décor of 14.01.

 24.0124.0125.0125.01

26.01 is exquisitely cut from thicker glass, it has a bottom star and the details of the rose itaglio cutting in 26.02 are the same as in 18.01.The PNs of the vases 21-26 are not yet identified, due to the many paper paterns missing in the time of WW I and the following decades.

26.0126.0126.0226.02

At this time Loetz made its own colour glass cones, therefrom the colouring of the produced vases are very specific and many different colour combinations were produced and blancs were traded to many bohemian refineries as Carl Hosch, Tschernich&Co, Karel Palda, Fachschule Steinschoenau and many others. In 27-28 the blue/'Camelien red' combination is presented. The shape of 27.01 is clearly seen as the outermost right vase in 6.03. The vase 28.01 nearly matches PN=III/2225 (1925) similar to III/849 central right vase in the lowest row of 2.04.

27.0127.0128.0128.0129.0129.01

 

The shape of the light green vase 29.01 remembers onto the Powolny designed series III/840-858 (1917), the geometric square décoration onto examples 8-10 and the top and bottom rim décor is known from 17.10 Ausf-276.

 

Three colours were applied in the Loetz 'Rainbow' vase PN=III/3611-3628 (1927) and this colour combination with an outer case of dark blue was used in combination of cutting by Loetz, too. A bowl exhibiting this rare combination with a cut similar to 'Schliff 249', documented in 2.06 and already seen in 21.03, and with applied bottom star is 30.01.

RainbowRainbow

 30.0130.01

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 30.02 the same 'Rainbow' colour combination is seen again. Though Stevens&Williams, GB made similar glass, but usually by applying a much more elaborate and characteristic cutting and itaglio décoration, these two examples  with their traditional Bohemian cutting shown here, are assigned to Loetz.

 

 30.0230.0231.0131.01

In 31.01 a finely cut/engraved vase of thin glass, nearly perfectly matching PN=III/929 (1918) of M. Powolny is presented, but as Powolny's shapes were very popular and have often been copied, this vase might have been produced by some other Bohemian company as well.

 

Panel face cutted vases

The intensively red, face cutted vase 32.01, of shape PN=III/4664 (1928) referenced in 2.02, is one example of this popular style, used by Moser, Josephinen Huette and many other bohemian companies, too. The green vase 32.02 is made according to PN=III/533 (1914) - the mouth widened - applying a 12-fold face cut as in 32.01-03.

32.0132.0132.0232.02

 

The 'Amethyst' and the yellow coloured vases are sketched in 2.02 as PN=III/2085 (1923), the only difference being the face cutting is running in three steps from top to bottom as compared to the separated two parts in the paper pattern.

32.0332.0332.0432.04

 

 

Some geometric décors

 

In contrast to the face cutting applied to thick walled glass, the cutting décoration of thinner glass needs a different technique. You may have a look onto the central triangle of 8.03 composed out of three flat cuttings each of a half-moon shape with a deeper edge at the straight side. This intaglio cut décor is applied to 8, 9 and 10.02, not only forming triangles but trapezoid shapes, too. This characteristic Loetz cutting feature is used to shape the rose-flowers in 17 and is also seen in different combinations in 33.

33.0133.01The shape of bowl 33.01 is noticed in [Ricke,II page 379] as PN=Com 572/1 (1912) and made in many different colour combinations for the 'Fachschule Steinschoenau', the ruby-red-to-clear-cut bowl was probabely decorated by Loetz themselves. The vases 33.02-04 are cut similarly, 33.02 follows PN~III/2084 (1924), the PN of the blue bowl 33.03 remains unknown and 33.04 is a taller, blue variant of 33.01. In the past these vases were most often assigned to Fachschule Haida or Oertel.

33.0233.0233.0333.03

 

33.05 is cut using the same characteritics, the shape is similar to PN=III/804 and III/904 (1917).

 

33.0533.05

 33.0433.04

The vase 34.01, with its simple cut, was designed by Josef Hoffmann PN=II/721 (1915) and its shape is in the spirit of 7.02A and 17.08. As Johann Oertel and Wenzel Kulka both used Loetz blanks, the cutting is sometimes assigned to one of them. The vases 34.02-05 are made in the same spirit and are similarly décorated

34.0134.0134.0234.0234.0334.03

 

34.0434.0434.0534.05

In 35.01 a vase décorated by a dynamically cut flower motive, not known from any early publication, of PN=III/3499 (1927) with remark 'Dark blue over Cristal for cutting, very urgent', this is another hint on cut glass noticed in the collection of the 'Musterschnitte' [Ricke,II].

35.0135.01

 

Two vases of matching shape PN=III/2085 (1920), see 2.02, the blue one, cut in the spirit of 33 and the ruby red vase in a manner similarly to pieces often assigned to Joh. Oertel&Co, Haida.

36.0136.0136.0236.02

 

Outlook

 

I hope, that this article provides a first comprehensive overview about Loetz cut glass production. The 128 examples on 116 photos give a good visual impression of Loetz cut glass, mainly onto the production from the begin of WW I 1914 up to 1936. Only very little is known about the early Loetz cut glass production before 1900, some first assignments are illustrated in 0.01-0.05. The sheets 2.01-06 show 78 paper patterns of Loetz cut glass and 6.06 Kralik paper patterns for comparison. Attributions of key pieces are based upon PNs, with 47 references, and additional pieces have been included, based on shape and/or colour similarity. Vases décorated by the documented 'Schliff 333 and 249' as well as first examples of Ausf-276 and one vase with similar décor as shown in the advertizing sheet 2.04, are presented. The article documents many new attributions to Loetz and new cutting patterns. From the cut glass presented in this article it becomes clear, that Loetz produced quality cutted items, but did not play an important role on the development of artistically leading hollow cut glass. Only the vases shown at the Paris 1900 'World Exhibition' and the 'Werkbund Exhibition' 1914 at Vienna belong to the top produced at this time. It seems, that the cut glass was treated more in the spirit of tradidional Bohemian production without putting too much effort into the design of a very elaborate high end decoration, as compared e.g. with companies like Harrach, Moser or Webb and Stevens&Williams. A small part of the production is quite similar to Kralik items and could obviously be misattributed. The relatively thin Loetz glass - with exception of face cut items and some late production pieces - separates it easily from the brilliant cut glass made in the US, or from modern cut glass, still made today in the 'Bohemian fashion' e.g. in Poland, Czech Republik or Turkey. The author is convinced, that with respect to the relatively large production of cut glass made after WW I, mostly for export to the US market, there will be an increasing part of Loetz cut items being revealed in the near future.

 

Acknowledgements

 

The author is very grateful to all members of the Loetz Advisory Board: Warren Galle, Andy Jelcick and David Littlefield for ongoing discussions and fruitful suggestions, and especially to the founders of this website, Deb Petersen Fitzsimmons and Tony Ellery, for their encouragement and constructive contributions as well as for carefully editing this article. I gratefully acknowledge Warren's contributios and the photos from his collection, as well as Deb's tedious search for early Loetz items, bearing at least a trace of cutting marks. My thanks also go to Mike Moir for his ongoing support. I am also very grateful to the dedicated collectors who kindly contributed many of the examples referenced in this article.

 

Photo Credits

 

This overview of the Loetz cut galss production has only been possible thanks to the ever increasing number of photos of glass appearing on the internet as the online market for antiques expands.

US, European and German law (UrhG 52) explicitly allow the use of publicly available photos in research. Nevertheless, the author is indebted to all of the anonymous owners of photos used, and would be interested to hear who they are, so he can thank them personally. Without their contributions, this article could not have been made. All photos are shown here for educational purpose only.

 

There follows the source used for each of the photos included: example numbers are separated by a colon, the photos themselves by a semicolon.

 

Auctions: Company.month.year.lot:example

Antique Place, USA: 09.2009.029:11.01;

Bamfords, GB: 08.2015.2058:25.01;

Bischoff, Germany: 05.2017.517:20.04;

Brunk, USA: 09.2014.310;18.05-06;

Capo, USA: 03.2017.540:18.04;

Eastbourne, GB: 08.20071225:33.03;

Dr. Fischer, Germany: 11.1991.2590:4.01;06.2014.450:7.01A;11.1991.2578:32.01;

Forsythes, USA: 12.2012.301:22.01;

Henry's, Germany: 08.2015.5145:28.01;

Hudson Valley, USA: 08.2015.229:17.03;

Jena,Germany: 09.2015.35015:12.03;06.2015.35034:13.01;

John McInnis, USA: 08.2012.286:21.01;

Kastern, Germany: 03.2015.690:14.02;

Lux, Germany: 09.2016.276:7.01;

Millon, France: 06.2017.009<<.18.07;

Neapolitan, GB: 12.2007.445:17.01-02;

New Orleans, USA: 10.2014.310:23.01;

Omaha, USA: 11.2014.014:5.04;

Quittenbaum, Germany: 10.2010.558:8.02;05.2014.384:33.01;

Susanin's, USA: 12.2015.1602061:31.01;

Westport, USA: 04.2017.2356:32.04;

Woody, USA: 03.2016.035:21.02;05.2015.181:27.01;

Zezula, Czech Rep.:12.2015.245:9.01-02;04.2014.339:13.02:

 

Ebay: date,pseudonym (if known):example

Ebay France: 04.2012:8.03;10.2013:10.01;

Ebay Germany: 02.2017:4.04;12.2016,ilmandarin0177:5.05;

01.2016,antikes-glas-neuwirth:12.04;05.2017:18.02-03;04.2013:32.02;05.2017:34.03-05;

01.2017,antiquitaeten-am-museum:32.03;12.2016,lena21j:33.02;

10.2016,les_styles_modernes:33.04;10.2016,goja47:34.01;

Ebay Great Britain: 06.2017,methusela-europe:11.03;02.2016,xuppesartandantiques:33.05

Ebay USA: 10.2016,michaelstacyart:18.01;02.2017,victoriasvintageestatesales:22.02;12.2015,gebobot:24.01;

09.2016,ibidbuyshipproperpurchases:29.01;

04.2016,scot0228:30.02;02.2016,onestoppotteryshop:35.01;

 

Webb sites: Company name:example

deerbe.com: 8.04-05;17.11;

glaskilian.de: 14.03-04;

glaswolf.de: 18.04A;34.02;

richardhoppe.co.uk:1.01-02;

 

Collectors Weekly: name:example

MacArt: 20.01-02;

IVAN49: 7.02 A;

Jericho: 21.03;

Philmac51: 20.03;

 

Pinterest: name:example

Helena Ciompova:36.01;cdn02.trixum.de:36.02;

 

Personel contributions: name:example

Author: 12.01-02;17.04;17.06;19.01;26.01-02;17.10;

Tony Ellery: 8.01;

Deborah Fitzsimmons: 5.01;5.03;6.01-03;15.01;Rainbow

Warren Galle: 2.07,7.03;11.02;16.01;17.07;17.08;17.09;

Mike Moir: 6.05;

Jericho Mora: 7.02;

Volkmar Schorcht: 6.06;

 

 

Photos from Museum: name of museum:example

Passau Glass Museum: 6.01-6.03,15.01 all photos were taken by Deborah Fitzsimmons

Museum Sumavy, Susice-Kasperske Hory: 6.04

 

Photos from literature:

[Mergl]   1.04

[Ricke,I]  1.03;1.05;1.06;4.02-03

[Ricke,II] 2.01 PN:III/530,   III/533,  III/535,   III/538,  III/948, III/2084

             2.02 PN:III/2085, III/3637, III/4125, III/4664, III/4669; 2.02A PN:III/271

[Ricke,II]page 589:2.03-206

[Neuw,II] 3.01-3.05;30.01

[Lnen,I]  2.03A

[Lnen,II] 5.02

 

Unknown:

5.02;14.01

 

Literatur:

[Hass]   K.Hasselbach 'An Atempt to identify early Loetz Production 1880-1897', at this web site

[Lnen,I] Jitka Lněničková: 'Johann Loetz 1824-1939, Glas aus dem Boehmerwald', Museum Sumavy, Susice-Kasperske Hory 1999

[Lnen,II] Jitka Lněničková: 'Loetz/Series II. Paper Patterns for Glass from 1900 to 1914' Museum Sumavy, Susice-Kasperske Hory 2011

[Mergl]  J.Mergl et.al. 'Loetz Boehmisches Glas 1880-1940', Hatje Cantz

[Neuw,I]  W.Neuwirth 'Loetz Austria 1900', Selbstverlag 1986

[Neuw,II] W.Neuwirth 'Loetz Austria 1905-1918', Selbstverlag 1986

[Ricke,I]  H.Ricke et.al. 'Loetz Boehmisches Glas 1880-1940' Band 1 Werkmonographie, Prestel-Verlag 1989

[Ricke,II] H.Ricke et.al. 'Loetz Boehmisches Glas 1880-1940' Band 2 Katalog der Musterschnitte, Prestel-Verlag 1989