An attempt to identify early Loetz production from 1880 -1897

by Dr. K. M. Hasselbach

NOTE: Dr. Hasselbach's article addresses an important topic and offers valuable insight into the early production of Loetz art glass during the period of 1880 -1897.  While his article is based on many years of research, Dr. Hasselbach acknowledges: "Of course, attributions based on limited information can never be as reliable as those included in the Décors Index on this website. There is always the possibility of misattribution, however diligently one tries to avoid it. In particular one must remember that there were many glassworks active at the same time as Loetz, making similar glass for the same markets. These included Harrach, Heckert, Theresienthal, Moser, Josephinenhuette, Riedel and Poschinger, plus firms from further afield such as Thomas Webb & Sons and Stevens & Williams. Successful décors were quickly copied by the competition, and this can also give rise to confusion, and makes correct attribution even more difficult. The author is well aware that some pieces may later be identified as the work of other glasshouse."  It is hoped that this article will open further discussion about this period of Loetz production. While the views expressed here are those of the author and do not necessarily represent or reflect the views of Loetz.com, we are indebted to Dr.  Hasselbach for his efforts and research on this subject and invite visitors to contact us at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. so that we may continue the discussion, study and research of this important subject. 

 

A Concise History

Johann Loetz founded his glass company by first acquiring, in 1824, the glassworks of 'Goldbrunn' and secondly, in 1838, he rented 'Annathal' near Bergreichenstein. After his death in 1844, his widow Susanne renamed the company 'Johann Loetz Witwe'. She bought 1851 the glassworks at Klostermuehle. A speciality was the production of 'Alabaster' glass halfware, some items of this early period are kept in the 'Museum Sumavy, Susice a Kasperske Hory', the photo 0.01 is taken from the small publication [Lnen 1999, page 35]. This special knowledge about 'Opal' glass was continuously developped further to a high degree of mastership and many colour variations will be seen in the forthcoming of this article.

0.010.01

In 1880 Maximilian von Spaun succeeded his aunt, Susanne Loetz-Gerster, as owner of the Loetz Witwe glassworks, and in the same year he appointed Eduard Prochaska as General Manager of the company. Prochaska modernized the production facility, installing two regenerative Siebert gas furnaces, each with eleven melting pots. Loetz concentrated on the production of coloured, hot shaped and cold décorated glass, as clear cut glass of unequalled quality was already produced nearby by Meyr's Neffe. In 1883, the growing company was granted the right to use the copyrighted Austrian Eagle logo on its labeling and stationery. By 1890, Loetz Witwe was one of the foremost companies for hollow glass and glass refinement. At this point Loetz Witwe employed about 200 staff, including 15 masters, and maintained cutting, enamelling and gilding workshops. This article covers the time frame up until 1887-98, at which point the exhibition of three Tiffany vases at Reichenberg (today called Liberec) and Vienna heralded the start of the highly successful 'Phaenomen Genre' production period at Loetz Witwe. This most important area of the Loetz production and its artistical and cultural contribution to European 'Art Nouveau' became widely known to a larger public by the Loetz exhibitions at Duesseldorf, Frankfurt and Prague in 1989 and by the accompanying catalogue "Loetz Boehmisches Glas 1880-1940" [Ricke] as result of a German - Czech cooperate scientific research program. All assignments on this website 'Décor Index' are still based on this work.

 

There is only limited knowledge about the early Loetz production in the time of 'Historicism' arround 1880-1898, a time, the social spirit aimed to succeed the ideals of lost epochs technically and optically in their produced luxury goods. During this early period, the glassworks changed style several times. The final examples of Antique, Renaissance, Baroque and Neo-Gothic glass were followed by Japonism with painted flowers, birds and butterflies, early Oriental ornamentation, hot-shaped artistic embellishment, Rococo Revival and the first appearance of Art Nouveau. Often one and the same piece exhibited such a combination of these styles that the result was rather overloaded and unappealing. Glassmaking had attained a very high standard and many new techniques had been introduced: iridization, overlaying with glass in contrasting colours, entrapped air décors, applied threading, etching with hydrofluoric acid and glass inlay cameo, as well as cutting, engraving, gilding, painting and the application of semi-precious stones. The larger glassworks employed experts for each of these techniques.

 

To understand the prerequisite for the later important impact of Loetz glass onto 'Art Nouveau', a deeper knowledge of the early production is essential. The independend development of style and décor in the highly competitive bohemian glass production environment - the most important and most densely occupied area by glass companies world wide - was needed for being succesfull. At this time, all ideas were develloped and produced by the glass masters of the Loetz company themselves, based on market demands known from the feedback of the various showrooms Loetz supported at many European capital cities. No cooperation with named artists is yet known.

 

The Relevance of the Paper Patterns ('Musterschnitte')

 

From 1885 onwards, Loetz drew a paper pattern, accompanied by a scale, for each object produced. These design drawings included additional information regarding décor, number of pieces commissioned and made, price, and supplementary text relating to the production process. Each paper pattern was given a unique, sequential production number ('PN') whereby it could easily be referenced. The majority of the paper patterns have survived and are archived in the Sumavy Sušice Museum in Kašperské Hory (formerly Bergreichenstein); some of them have been published [Ricke] and by [Lněničková]. These published paper patterns are the primary resource for identifying Loetz glass. Sadly, for the period 1885-1897 only 174 paper patterns have survived for 7171 PNs, plus some sheets showing items commissioned by I. Loesel, Tschernich & Co., Carl Schappel and L. Boutigny. As successful shapes were produced over a range of years, one can still find among the Loetz Series II (1900 and later) vases that have been made many years before and the PN often references to the earlier Series I. These were taken into account, too.

 

Early Décors

 

Loetz reacted to the rapidly evolving styles on the market by introducing a quick succession of new décors, including 'Intarsia' (1885), 'Octopus' (1887), 'Onyx' (1888), 'Carneol' (1889), 'Rainbow' (1891), 'Lapis Lazuli', 'Columbia', 'Malachit', 'Persica', 'Alpenrot' and 'Alpengruen' (1893), 'Pêle-Mêle' (1894), 'Arcadia' and 'Olympia' (1896) and 'Chiné' (1897) see [Neuwirth 1900, page 243-53].

Many of these décors are very well documented [Ricke], and all are adequately represented on this website and will therefore not be further discussed in this article which focuses on the hitherto virtually unknown early Loetz production. Authors of previously published books covering this period of bohemian glass production totally ignored the Loetz contributions (besides the known styles mentioned above in the introduction to 'Early Décors'). Therefore we critically have to reconsider assignments we have in our mind from the past literature. Prior to 1895, the majority of the production capacity was dedicated to glass made to resemble various semi-precious stones: 'Onyx', 'Carneol', 'Malachit', 'Lapis Lazuli', 'Marmor' (marble), 'Chalcedon' and 'Jaspis' (jasper). Most of the remaining production was of either so-called opal glass - opaque colored glass decorated with enameling and gilding, or fantasy articles decorated by Venetian pincer work – real masterpieces of technique – or, so-called 'Barock' glass, first introduced in Bohemia by Loetz.

Examples of the latter are flowers 1.01, 1.02 PN~I/3150 (1891), 1.10, 1.12-13.

1.011.011.021.02

 

animals - here a later example designed by Marie Kirchner - 1.03 PN=1090/265 (1911) and roebuck shaped in 'Antique Revival' style like a Greek Rhyton vessel 1.04 PN=I/6761 (1896),

1.031.03

1.041.04

 

sea-shells 1.05, 1.06 PN=I/7008 (1897)

 1.051.051.061.06

decorated vases 1.07

1.071.07    

baskets 1.08 PN~I/7346 (1898) and 1.09

1.081.081.091.09

The extraordinarily artistic basket 1.09 made of slightly iridescent glass – like the top of 1.08 – may have been made by Loetz using the rediscovered Venetian glass techniques, while still expressing its Bohemian origin. These vessels were modern during the 'Renaissance Revival' period 1870-80 and were inspired by Dutch Rococo verticulated glass baskets made in the early 18.th century.

Finally the popular tube vases 1.10-11, are shown here.

1.101.101.111.11    

In 1.10 there is a floral arrangement with the same twisted stem as 1.01 and the same flowers as in 1.01, attached to the same foot as 1.02, seen in PN=I/3407 (1891). The right thorn vase in 1.10 is given in full detail in 57.01. The rough, knotty stem of the tube vase 1.11 can be found in various PNs, e.g. PN=I/4033 (1892). 1.12 resembles 1.01 with yellow flowers and 1.13 shows an assemble like PN=I/4800 (1893) where the third down hanging flower as well as the hook, possibly broken and polished back, are missing.

1.121.121.131.13

 

Methodology of Identification

 

This section will consider those parts of early Loetz production that were not covered by the décors already mentioned earlier in this article, and which are not extensively documented on this website. The following elements have been considered in making attributions:

 

  1. Paper patterns
  2. Shape, homology and general characteristics
  3. Décor and ornamentation
  4. Colour and colour combinations
  5. Signatures and marks
  6. Co-production and commissions
  7. Quality and style
  8. Documented museum pieces

 

Of course, attributions based on limited information can never be as reliable as those included in the Décors Index on this website. There is always the possibility of misattribution, however diligently one tries to avoid it. In particular one must remember that there were many glassworks active at the same time as Loetz, making similar glass for the same markets. These included Harrach, Heckert, Theresienthal, Moser, Josephinenhuette, Riedel and Poschinger, plus firms from further afield such as Thomas Webb & Sons and Stevens & Williams. Successful décors were quickly copied by the competition, and this can also give rise to confusion, and makes correct attribution even more difficult. However unlikely this may seem, the author is well aware that some pieces may later be identified as the work of other glasshouse.

In writing this article the author has borne in mind results already published by other researchers, and includes these to give as complete an overview as possible of early Loetz production.

 

Examples of Early Loetz Production

 

As only around 200 paper patterns [Ricke] are available for the whole 12-year period covered by this article, there is little likelihood of finding one that precisely matches a particular piece of glass. Sometimes it has proven possible to document a specific shape, but with a different décor. Virtually none of the glass made during this period was signed 'Loetz', and all paper labels are long gone, but many vases are marked with a very Loetz-specific décor number (here abbreviated as 'Dek') on the bottom, usually consisting of a Roman number followed by a diagonal slash and an Arabic number. These unique 'Dek' numbers are considered to be markers of Loetz products.

 

A good starting point are the vases 2.01-02 and 2.03-04, enamelled with hanging flowering branches of an apple tree. The shape of 2.01 exactly matches PN=I/3142 from 1890-91. Although the shape is still closely bound to typical early Historicism ~1850, the foot has been blown separately and then attached to the body of the vase; the décor of flowering branches reflects the rising influence of Japanese art, as can also been seen in most of the examples that follow. The pink colour - Aurora - on a milky-white opal ground spreads from top to bottom.

2.012.012.022.02

This is clearly the same décor as 2.03, and in the same 'Aurora' opal glass with related enamelling as 2.05 and 2.06, which is signed Dek=I/30; the décor is repeated once again in 4.

 2.032.032.042.04

 2.052.052.062.06

In example 3.01, the Dek mark I/107 and the enamelled small flowers forming sprays on bare branches confirm the maker as Loetz.

3.013.013.023.02

 

The next two vases 3.02-03 have the PN=I/2222 (1890) shape, while 3.02, 3.04 and 3.06 have the same orange spreading to white as 3.01

3.033.033.043.04

3.03 shows green glass spreading to pink, and 3.06 green spreading to yellow.  

 3.053.05 3.063.06

3.06 resembles the shape of 3.05 PN=I/1308 (1885-87), but with four indentations. The yellow vase 3.07 resembles the shape of 3.05 and 44.01.

 3.073.07 

 3.093.09

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The yellow vase 3.09 of same shape as 3.01 resembles 3.07 and the clear yellow vase with the bundle of small white flowers, very similar to 3.04-07 is signed Dek I/107 - as is 3.01 - and is thereby evidently made by Loetz. The yellow spreading vase 3.11 of same shape, but with applied handles PN~I/3145 (1891) is covered by a gilded branch of densily flowering starlike blossoms, the same blossoms appear thickly white enamelled on the opaque purple vase shown partly in 3.12. The two crossing branches spreading down from the top are similarly seen again in 36.

3.103.103.113.113.123.12

 

 

 

4.014.01

4.024.02The vases in section 4 exhibit slightly larger flowers than in 2.05 and 3, and they are bundled together. Vase 4.01 is part of the impressive collection of the Passau Glass Museum. Vase 4.03 has the same shape as PN=I/1808 (1885-97) and is marked Dek=III/115, identifying this as a Loetz product.

4.034.034.044.04

The glass colour of vases 4.01-04 is a spreading light purple to opal white, 4.05 is transparent purple, 4.06 orange spreading to opaque green more clearly seen in 4.07. The yellow pitcher and tumblers in 4.07A with same

décor as 4.06 are signed Dek=III/136. Just tiny differences as compared to 4.01-05 (Dek=III/115) give rise to the different Dek numbering in 4.06-07A.

 4.054.054.064.06

4.074.074.07 A4.07 A

The tall vase 4.08 is made of clear, transparent rubina verde glass.

 

 4.084.084.094.09

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The example in 4.09 shows the same flowers on a vase with an orange-red case over inner light opal blue glass, a precursor of the later well-known Loetz 'Alpenrot' décor.

The pitcher 4.10 shows the very same décor of flowers on an opaque green spreading ground similar to the colour seen in 5.01-02 and 4.11 is signed Dek III/115, the colour is spreading from opal light purple to clear, the body is 'schief gewalzt', that is 'diagonally rolled', a technique used by Loetz for many years, especially by the items designed by Marie Kirchner. The pink opale pitcher 4.11A is décorated by Dek=III/115, too. Additional pitchers are shown in 54-56.

4.104.104.114.11

Another wonderful example of Dek=III/115 is shown in 4.12, the signed carafe has its original stopper fitting properly to the style of the attached knotty handle.

4.11 A4.11 A 4.124.12

4.134.13

 

4.13 shows similarly painted flowers as the examples with Dek III/115 and 7.02-03, 17.08 - details are more obvious in 4.14 - but the enamelling is much thicker and reminds onto the outermost right vase in 16.07 and 19.01-03. Though it is hardly to see, the top rim of 4.13 is similarly décorated as compared to 11.03.4.144.14

 

 

 

From the previous examples it is evident that fading one colour to white / opal was fashionable during this period, and that applying two colours – as in 3.03 or 4.07 - heightened the effect. In 5, we see green glass spreading to pale yellow. Vase 5.01 has the shape of paper pattern PN=I/3123 (1890-91), and the same apple branch with leaves appears on 5.02.

 5.015.015.025.02

 

The vase 5.03 exhibiting a 'M-crimped' rim shows a related stylized décor on orange to pink spreading glass and is signed Dek=IV/9.

5.035.03

 

In example 6, the vase shown in 6.01 and 6.02 has the very well-known 'M-crimped' rim,

6.016.016.026.02

which was often used later by Loetz in the semi-precious stone series, an example of which is the 'Carneol' vase in 6.03.

6.036.03

The top and bottom rims of 6.01-02 are covered with dark brown, almost black bands embellished with dense, ink-gilded flowers. The two enamelled flowering peonies are characteristic of Japanese ceramics and clearly demonstrate the influence of contemporary Japonism onto the décors of the Loetz factory just as Art Nouveau was emerging, in around 1880-85. The vase also demonstrates how Loetz was able to imitate, using matte glass, the Far Eastern ceramic egg-shell effect. Vase 6.04, which shares its shape with 5.02, exhibits the same dark brown ink-gilded rim bands as 6.01, with enamelled swallows perched on a flowering apple tree branch, once again in the style of Japanese ceramics. This décor is very similar to 7.11-7.14 and 25.

6.046.046.056.05

It's hard to see, but in vase 6.05 we once more see a brown band, again ink-gilded like 6.01, this time only at the bottom, plus enamelled flowers similar to 7.01-01A. In 6.06 the black enamelled bottom part of the orange spreading vase is décorated by an ink gilded ornament similarly to the top ornament of the 'Carneol' vase 6.07 - more clearly seen in the detail in 6.08 - and also used in 8.03. The tiny flowers and the white leafes remind onto similar branches in 7.02 and 7.07-08 and others.

6.066.066.076.076.086.08

 

Vase 7.01 has the same crimped rim as 6.01-03, with a matte opal body in light brown imitating ceramics. The rim decoration repeats the dark brown ink-gilded bands that we saw in 6.01-04 and is seen again in 7.01A, its shape matching PN=2269/2917 (~1881) confirms the assignment of this décor to Loetz.

7.017.017.01A7.01A

The enamelled wild roses with leaves on thorny branches are very characteristic, and underline the fact that each glassworks employed its own specialists for the different techniques. Here the painter has enamelled the leaves using a very characteristic flowing brush technique, which can be identified in all of the vases of example 7. The yellow spreading vase 7.02 is marked Dek=III/26 and it has the same silk like golden surface as described in 21.06. Its shape with a different décor is seen in 50.01 again. The same décor is applied to the pitcher 7.02A.

7.027.027.02 A7.02 A7.037.03

The bowl 7.03 with red/orange spreading to opale light purple exhibits the same type of enamelling, but with larger white blossoms as in 7.05A.

7.047.047.04A7.04A

7.04 and 7.04A have matching enamelling like 7.02-02A and the pitcher has the typical Aurora spreading colour on opale white glass like 4.12.

The vase 7.05 with same colouring as 7.03 is marked Dek=IV/21, or possibly IX/21. Another fine example of this décor is shown in 7.05A, a vase with 'M-crimped' rim and the flowers comparable to 7.03 and 16.02.

7.057.057.05A7.05A

 

 

 

 

The vases 7.06-08,7.10-17 are examples of early Loetz 'Karoatlas' glass introduced in 1885 [Neuwirth] page 245: Sprechsaal 1889 S.77 A.Schmidt: 'Von der Kunstgewerbeausstellung in Muenchen 1888', with a décor made by air inclusions in the shape of diamonds similarly to the Webb and Harrach 'Mother of Pearl' décor. Vase 7.06, similar in colour to 2.01-04, has the remains of a Dek number and the unique shape of 7.07 resembles PN=85/3684 (1899).

7.067.06

Both vases 7.07-08 exhibit the same type of enamelled leaves, already mentioned, and clearly seen in 7.08.

 7.077.077.087.08

7.09 shows again the enamelling of 7.01-06 on a deep blue ground of a strongly ribbed vase similar to 16.03.

 7.097.09

7.10 displays a 'Karo-Optisch' bowl with 'Aurora' spreading colour signed Dek=III/26 with enamelling very similar to 7.07-08. Here the 'Karo-Optisch' décor mimics the 'Karoatlas' appearance by a diamond shaped embossed surface structure of the glass. Another example of 'Karo-Optisch' glass is 7.10A, a vase of same shape as 7.07.

7.107.107.10 A7.10 A

The can 7.10B is the same as 7.04A, but executed in 'Karo-Optisch' without enamelling and 7.10C with Dek=III/26 known from other examples shown in 7.

 7.10 B7.10 B7.10 C7.10 C

 

The following Loetz vases 7.11-12 show a 'M-crimped' rim and 'Karoatlas' glass and the same colour as 13.01-04 or 14.03,14.06. The décor has often been assigned to Harrach, but this vase is clearly signed Dek=I/275. A similar décor of gilded flying birds outlined on blue 'Karoatlas' glass is shown in 7.13-14. Other examples of this newly identified Loetz décor are seen in 25.01-07.

7.117.117.127.12

 

7.137.137.147.14

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vase 7.15 with 'M-crimped' rim shows a décor where the diamonds themselves are filled with air, in contrast to the previous examples where the diagonal stripes forming the diamonds are air filled. This vase has a pink/green colour combination like 7.19 and the shape of the Loetz 'Intarsia' vase 7.16.

7.157.157.167.167.177.17

The 'Karoatlas' vase 7.17 with orange to pale pink spreading colour as e.g. 7.01,-05 and the shape of 7.15-16 shows the typical Loetz seaweed like applications surrounding the bases of the handles, as they are very well known from the Loetz mussel vases like 1.06. The vases 7.15 and 7.17 have knotty, branch like handles attached by a root like structure to the vase - similar to 1.01 - a very popular design at this time.  The same décor of air filled diamonds as 7.15 is shown in 7.18 with the often used shape PN=I/4359 (1892), II/342 or PN=I/7998, II/255-258 within a richly jewelled ormolu. The pink/green 'Karoatlas' vase 7.19 repeats 7.15, it's top tooled rim is dealt with in more detail in 35.

7.187.187.197.19

 

8.018.01

 

 

As mentioned, Loetz frequently used the 'M-crimped' rim to finish the mouths of its vases, a device that in rare cases was employed by Harrach, too. In example 8, this form of rim is seen on a Loetz matte opaque opal vase with coralene ornamentation round the neck, in a style frequently used in Loetz 'Onyx' 1888 and later on other marbled glass. Shape 8.01 matches both 6.01 and 7.01, and the shape of 8.02 resembles PN=I/650 (1888-89). The rim décor of 8.03 is similar to 6.07-08.

 8.028.028.038.03 

 

 

The coralene decoration around the neck and the delicately coloured matte opal glass in pale blue, pink, yellow and eggshell are shown in 9. The shape of 9.03 PN=L/235 is known from an 'Octopus' vase documented in [Ricke page 63.3] and is the same as 31.02.

 9.019.019.029.02

 

 

9.039.039.049.04

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Examples 10.01-03 show a compilation of vases decorated with branches of wild roses but, in contrast to 7, without leafes. Vase 10.01 exhibits the same orange-red colour spreading to pink that we see in 7.03 and 12.04. Vase 10.02 has the same shape as 10.01,10.04 and14.05, but in yellow spreading to white.

10.0110.0110.0210.02

 

The shape of 10.03 was often used by Loetz and is also seen in 4.03, 10.07 and 14.10.0310.03

the vases 10.04-07 show all the same décor composed of grass blades with tiny yellow flowers. The shape of 10.05 is repeated again in 13.05.

10.0410.0410.0510.05

10.0610.06

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 10.0710.07

In the following example 11, documented and published by Warren Galle (Pinterest, Collectors Weekly 11.01-02), the shape of 11.01 is seen in PN=I/3245 (1891), the dark green colour is known from 3.03, and the vase is marked Dek=I/40, this identifying it as the same early Loetz décor as in 11.02-04. The shape of 11.04 is documented as PN=I/1030 (1885-90).

11.0111.0111.0211.02

11.0311.0311.0411.04

Consequently, the five vases in example 12, made of orange-red spreading glass, must also be attributed to Loetz. The shape of 12.05 is repeated with a differing décor in 13.04 such verifying this décor as being made by Loetz, too.

 12.0112.0112.0212.02

 

 

 

 

12.0312.0312.0412.04 

 

12.0512.05

Vase 13.01 repeats the décor found in 12, and vase 13.02 has the same shape; the decorations with large-petalled flowers are obviously very closely related, and both are shown together in 13.

 

 13.0113.0113.0213.02 

A very similar décor with large enamelled flowers is seen in 13.03, 13.05-07, which is the same décor as in 16.06 and in the same shape as 10.01-02. In 13.04 two vases with four indentations, each with matching enamelling, but different sizes are presented. For the smaller vase at the right side we meet once again the orange-to-pink spreading colour as in 10.01,12.02 and 14.02. The same décor is seen on the left opal blue fading vase, having the same colour as 8.03 and 9.01. According to the same shape as 12.05, this décor is obviously made by Loetz, too.

13.0313.03

13.0513.05

 

13.0413.04

 

 

 

13.0613.06

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13.0713.07

In example 14, vases with the shape already seen for 5.01 and 4.04 have been grouped together. Vase 14.01 PN=I/1808 (1885-90) has the same spreading purple colour as 4.01-04, transparent in this case, and is marked Dek=I/4.

14.0114.01

Vase 14.02 shows a similar décor to 12, 13 and 16.06, with the same rim ornamentation as 4.05.

14.0214.02

Comparing shape and colour confirms that 14.03-04 are also early Loetz pieces.

 14.0314.0314.0414.04

 14.0514.05The vase 14.05 exhibits the same décor as 14.03 and the shape resembles 10.01-02,04 and 13.03.  

 

Example 15.01-05 shows seven vases which are closely related, all showing a long, conical neck attached to an egg-shaped body. There is also a strong similarity in the gilding. Alongside the 'Malachit' décor 15.01, the other four vases demonstrate a Rococo Revival style of ornamentation. The pair 15.03 and 15.03A have same ormulu, same shape, but differ in colour and 15.03A is optically blown with a finely ribbed structure.

15.0115.0115.0215.02

15.0315.0315.03 B15.03 B15.03 A15.03 A15.0415.04

The vases 15.04-05 show, that the same shape was still being used in 1898, when the 'Candia Papillon' décor was first produced. The enamelled peacock of 15.05

15.0515.0515.0615.06

matches the one applied to a bowl of spreading green glass, shown as 15.06-07, and also that on 15.08 and 15.08A.

 15.0715.0715.08 A15.08 A15.0815.08

Vase 15.09 shows a pair of pheasants enamelled in a similar manner.

15.0915.09

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At this time there was also a fashion for vases standing on filigree ormolu, often with additional ormolu hanging from the top of the vase, as shown in 15.01-03, as well as for pieces with ormolu-like flowers climbing around the body as in 15.10 PN=I/7607 (1898). A very appealing Art-Nouveau object is 15.11 PN=I/6479 (1896), here the combination of the pewter montur with the 'Chine' bowl remembers onto an opening water-lily surrounded by swarming dragonflies.

 15.1015.10 15.1115.11

 

Continuing the theme of vases with 'M-crimped' rims, already seen in 7.01 and 8.01, another set of five décors could be identified. Vase 16.01 PN=I/168 (1885) (neu II/20) is marked Dek=III/54, and this type of thick enamelling – introduced around 1890 – is the same as that used for 'Alpengruen' and 'Alpenrot'. It was used again in vases 16.07-08, which were ornamented with glass imitations of precious stones. Once more, one can clearly see the influence of Japanese art.

16.0116.0116.0216.02

Vase 16.02, made of 'Olympia' glass, shows another variant of the 'M-crimped' rim motif like 5.03, and its shape - besides the handles - matching 16.02A, a 'Rubin glatt' version of PN=I/6772 (1896) (neu II/322).16.02A16.02A

 

 

 

An early version of Loetz 'Carneol' vase is shown together with two orange-opal vases, all with 'M-crimped' rims, in 16.03. The vases are strongly ribbed, similar to 7.09 and some 'Rainbow' vases such as 24.04-06.

16.0316.03

16.0416.04

Vase 16.04 PN=2269/2952 (1881) is marked Dek=I/440. Vases 16.01 and 16.03 have the same shape, and the décor of vase 16.06 includes large white flowers - same décor as 13.03-06 - painted in the same manner as on 11. Vase 16.05 Dek=I/417 exhibits a unique coralene décor - same as 37.01 - similar to that patented by Fritz Heckert in 1884, and another one shown in 35.06.

16.0516.0516.0616.06

 

 

 

 

The highly embossed enamel of 16.07-09 and 17.01 is similar to that of 16.01 and is typical of the high quality of Loetz products. Characteristic are the enamelled branches with applied star like bushes of pine needles decorated by red or yellow jewels. Strongly related décors are shown in  17.01, 19.01 and 36.01.

 16.0716.0716.0816.0816.0916.09 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The vases of example 17 exhibit a very characteristic tooled upper rim which is formed by a series of parallel vertical cuts and in many cases a horizontal row of small, penetrating holes beneath in the neck of the vase. Such a rim is shown in paper pattern PN=2269/2898 (1898), made for Tschernich & Co., for a vase with a different body shape. Vase 17.01 shares the same highly embossed style of decoration that we have already seen in 16.01 and 16.07.

17.0117.0117.0217.02

The shape of 17.01-02 resembles that of the Octopus vase PN=L/351 (1887-88) (I. Loesel) shown in [Ricke page 63.3]. The vases in 17.02 show leaves comparable to those in 16.04. The vase shown in 17.03 is very similar with respect to the tooled rim as well as regarding the shape.

17.0317.03

This décor, consisting of dark brown stripes on a clear / yellow ground, is usually attributed to Harrach; that may well be, but it is also reasonable to hypothesise that this may be the Loetz décor called 'Hornglas' which is mentioned in [Neuwirth 1900 page 250] J.C. Ackermann's illustrated Wiener Gewerbe Zeitung 1890 “...Hornglas, ein durchsichtiges Glas mit braunen Streifen....(Hornglas, a transparent glass with brown stripes)” and in [Schmidt page 98] “Auch das gelbliche halbopake Hornglas, mit rothbraunen einzelnen und unregelmaessigen Streifen ist... (The yellowish, semi-opaque Hornglas, with individual, irregular red-brown stripes, is also...)”. Other very fine examples of what may well be Loetz 'Hornglas' are shown in 17.03-04, 18.09, 24.02 and 48.01.

17.0417.04

A related enamelled decoration of the popular motive of flying cranes as in 17.04 appears on the Loetz 'Ophir' vase, introduced years later in 1904, with same arrangement of the two cranes and painted in almost identically embossed manner as is shown by the details of the two cranes in 17.05-06

17.0517.0517.0617.06

and similarly the flying cranes in 16.07 and 19.02 support strongly the assignment of the 'Hornglas' examples to Loetz. The more luxurious variations of 'Hornglas' are decorated at the rim by etched gilded embroidery, as is 17.04. This well known décoration was often used by Loetz - likewise in this 'Ophir' example - very often in Ausf-124 and is also known from 'Carneol' vases, see [Ricke page 64.6]. This type of etched gilded rim decoration is not yet reported from any Harrach vase. From the very limited documentation available, it is currently impossible to find out, which company takes priority in 'Hornglas' production, see also Harrach-09.

Example 17.07, 17.07A and 17.07B are bowls, again with the same rim as 17.01-03, 17.07 exhibiting a pine-needle décor like in 16.07-09 and 36.04 and 17.07A shows pink fruits made by the patented Loetz 'Intarsia' technique within enamelled foliage similar to 41.01.

17.0717.0717.07A17.07A

The orange bowl 17.07B is decorated by an unusual ornamental décor, not yet known from Loetz production.

 17.07B17.07B

The pair of vases with similar tooled rims in 17.08 PN~I/3147 (1891) show handles typical for this Loetz production period, similar to 18.07, 21.04, 23.03 and 24.06, and the décor is very similar to Dek=III/115, as shown in 7.

 17.0817.08 loetz-early-17.09loetz-early-17.09

 

 

 

The vase 17.09 resembles 17.02 in a creamy yellow spreading tone. An interesting vase is 17.10, it is of similar shape as 17.02-03, 17.09 and exhibits a comparable top rim without the ring of holes. The applied handles are examples of the 'Baroque' style hot shaped glass like 1.01, with attached pink blossoms, details of this type of décoration are described in 42.loetz-early-17.10loetz-early-17.10 The pair 17.13 share the shape, the tooled rim and have similar décor as 17.02 and 17.09, but with larger flowers on a light blue ground. Here the band of smaller holes are melted together. A very special appearance is observed in the unique vase 17.14, the silvery reflecting structure originates from the irregular air filled craquele holes lying in between the pink spreading inner glass layer and the transparent cobalt blue glass surface applied as outer layer.

17.1317.1317.1417.14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The vase 17.15 repeats again the shape of 17.13 and is decorated similarly.

17.1517.15

 

Series 18 shows examples of the light purple opal glass, already seen in 4.02-03 and 16.07, placed together. Vase 18.01 has the same shape as 4.01 but with a gilded decoration in the Persian style; this comparison was published by Warren Galle.

18.0118.0118.0218.02

 

Dish 18.02 has a characteristic shape and is marked Dek=IV/271. Another colour variant is shown in 18.03, 18.04A and in 19.06.

18.0318.0318.0418.04

 

Vase 18.04 is decorated in a Rococo Revival style very similar to 20.03, with tiny gilded flowers cascading down the neck. The same colour is used in 18.04B, this pair is again heavily décorated by 'Rococo Revival' scrollworks very similar to 18.12, 19.04 and 21.04. After the pair 18.04B was sold by the auctioneers, it is now offered again in Oct.2017 for a much higher price, here the bottom is shown in more detail and it is clearly signed by Dek=I/4 verifying its previous assignment to Loetz.

18.04 B18.04 B

The light blue vase 18.04C matches the shape and size of 18.04B, it is ornamented by rich 'Rococo Revival' rocailles, scrolworks and girlands of small flowers like 15.03B, 19.04-05, 20.02-03, 21.04 and 38.05, too.18.04 C18.04 C Here it is the first example of a early Loetz vase largely decorated by cutting using the popular 'Russian' pattern, firstly patented in the USA in 1882 by Phillip McDonald working with Hawkes. Further details and additional examples you may find in my article [Hass].

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vases 18.05 Dek=I/4 and 18.06 Dek=I/94 match the shape of PN=I/7496 (1898).

18.0518.0518.0618.06

 

Vase 18.07 is marked Dek=III/234. In the same shape, but without handles, vase 18.08 PN=I/2766 (1890) shows the spreading pink colour of 2.01 and 2.03 and the décor may have been done by Muehlhaus, Nový Bor, who quite often used Loetz blanks.

18.0718.0718.0818.08

The same shape as in 18.07-08 is met again in 18.09, further supporting the Loetz 'Hornglas' hypothesis, and for shape comparison 18.10 shows a Loetz 'Creta Papilon' (kindly suggested by Alisa C.) and 18.11 an enamelled Olympia Loetz vase.

18.0918.0918.1018.10

18.1118.1118.1218.12

Vase 18.12 has the same 'Aurora' colour as 2.01-2.06,7.01,7.06 and 18.08 and a fine 'Rococo Revival' enamelling. The orange to pink spreading vase 18.13 is décorated by a 'Persian' ornament discussed in more detail in 30.

18.1318.13

The shape of all vases 18.08-13 match PN=II/473 (with reference to alt I/7648).

We already met vases with the exceptional 'Japonism' décor of the 'Carneol' examples 19.01-02 in 16.01 and 17.01.

19.0119.0119.0219.02

 

 

 

 

 

Here the author would like to encourage readers to take a close look at the way the white roses are painted, as the same enamelling technique is clearly seen in the wonderful pair of vases 19.03.

19.0319.03

 

The same pink color as in 18.07, 19.06, 21.06 and 26.08 is seen in 19.04 with heavy 'Rococo Revival' gilding comparable to 18.04B and 21.04.

19.0419.04

The darker orange-red spreading colour with a purple hue and strong golden irization of vase 19.05 is assumed to be an example of 'Camelienrot' (camellia-red), described in Centralblatt 1894 page 481, [Neuwirth 1900 page 251] as 'Camelienroth, ein neues rothes mit Gold gefaerbtes Glas, durchscheinend mit reinem Reliefdecor, zumeist in Rococo ..' (Camelienrot, a new red with gold coloured glass, transparent with embossed décor often in Rococo...) The vase has a 'M-crimped' rim resembling many vases of the semi-precious stones series of décors as well as the shapes of 6.01-03, 7.01, 8.01. The enamelled décor of Rococo scrollwork and tiny white flowers is seen again in 38.05.

19.0519.05 

 

 Another version of this vase with same shape, but deeper 'Camelienrot' colour is shown in 19.06-07 having a wonderful 'Art Nouveau' thickly

enameled 'Japanese' lake scene of fishes swimming in between sea roses combined with etched ink gilded flowers and waves. The described impression of a 'glass red coloured with gold' is clearly seen, especially at the top rim edges.

 19.0619.0619.0719.07

 

 

Another example of 19.05, but the photo taken with a flashlight changing the 'Camelien red' colour more towards orange and showing the enamelled décor -nearly the same as 38.05 - more clearly, is given 19.08 and a spreading 'Blattgruen' version in 19.09.

19.0819.0819.0919.09

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The colour combination of orange-brown spreading to yellow as in 20.01-04 was frequently produced, usually decorated in the 'Rococo Revival' style.

20.0120.0120.0220.02

 

 

 

 

Vase 20.03-04 is Dek=I/200, and this is often used on 'Carneol' and 'Malachit 'pieces.

20.0320.0320.0420.04

 

 

 

 

 

Loetz was now exploiting the effects of combining contrasting overlay colours. Typical examples include 'Alpenrot' (red over sky blue) and 'Alpengruen' (sky blue / yellow-green). Another popular combination was purple and yellow-green, as shown in 20.05, and other examples of this combination are documented as 'Persica'.

20.0520.0520.0620.06

 

A fine example of 'Persica' is 20.06, the shape and purple opaque colour are repeated in 20.07-08. Whereas the decor of 20.07 - oak leaves - are typical for Moser, the décor of 20.08 could have been made by either Loetz or Moser.

20.0720.0720.0820.08

 

This shape/colour comparison suggests that Moser used Loetz blanks for decoration, especially as his own glass production at Meierhoefen did not begin before 1895. This topic will be discussed in more detail in the chapter concerning Moser production.

In 20.09 the left vase shows again the colour combination of 20.05 and the right vase a spreading orange. The same vase spreading to light pink is shown in 20.09 A, but with being cut down, possibly to remove some damage to the decorated rim.

20.0920.0920.09 A20.09 A

Vase 20.10, made of light purple opal glass, has nearly same shape as the Loetz 'Rainbow' vase 20.11 PN=I/1582 (1885-87); this early 'Rainbow' pattern - one of the first décors utilizing surface irization (1891) - is met again in 24.01. The gilded décor with tiny enamelled flowers is more clearly visible in the 'Carneol' vase of same shape 20.12, too.

20.1020.1020.1120.11

20.1220.12 

Vase 21.01 is marked Dek=IV/103, and its PN=I/3282 (1888). It shows a 'Persian' decoration and its colour is called 'Makart'.

21.0121.0121.0221.02

The same colour is found in 21.02 PN=I/7859 (1899) and 21.03 PN=I/7618 (1898). Vase 21.04 is a pink heavily gilded in the 'Rococo Revival' style, similar to 19.04, 20.03 and 20.04.

21.0321.0321.0421.04 

A heavy pitcher with 'Makart' spreading to light pink with Dek=III/41 is shown in 21.05, another pitcher of same shape is 54.03. The pink vase 21.06 having a silk like golden veiling, 'a speciality of Loetz' [Neuwirth page 251], and the neck covered by a fine 'Biedermeier' enamelling, similar to 22.01, matches PN=I/5108 (1894), new II/267 (1900).

21.0521.0521.0621.06

 

Another 'Makart' signed Dek=IV/202 example is displayed as 21.07.

21.0721.07

Loetz collaborated with Lobmeyr, Vienna, for many years. Following the excavation of Pompeii, faux-Roman vessels made of iridescent green glass became very popular and Lobmeyr ordered many such designs from Loetz, a company with which they shared family connections. One example is shown in 22.01 PN=I/6649 (1896) Dek=IV/103. Another example of a Lobmeyr design is 22.02, a goblet of the 'Spaun Series' [Neuwirth 1905, page 343-47], manufactured by Loetz in 1898 PN=1181/35-98.

22.0122.0122.0222.02

 

The enamelling style used in 22.02 encouraged Loetz to shift its priorities towards Art Nouveau, as can be seen from the Loetz adaptations 22.03-06 enamelled onto very well known Loetz shaped iridized 'Creta' green and 22.05 'Olympia' vases, respectively. A very elaborate example is shown in 22.06 PN=I/3145 (1890).

 

 22.0322.0322.0422.04

 22.0522.0522.0622.06

 

By the end of the 1880s, iridisation was a standard technique used by Loetz. Some early examples with highly elaborate gilding of 'Olympia' glass ~1896 are shown in 23.01-04.

23.0123.0123.0223.02

23.0323.0323.0423.04

 

Basket 23.05 shows a very fine 'Indian' decoration on rare 'Columbia' glass discussed in detail in 31.02-03.

23.0523.05

The 'Arcadia' vase 23.06 is marked Dek=1374, this décor is used again in the 'Peachblown' vase 59.01.

23.0623.0623.0723.07

The shape of ewer 23.07 is reminiscent of Renaissance glass, but with 'Rococo Revival' enamelling and a flying bird on pale blue iridized glass.

The 'Rainbow' décor was introduced by Loetz in 1891, but only a few PNs are available for these early years. Vase 24.01, which has an 'M-crimped' rim like 6.01-03,7.01 and 24.03, clearly shows the décor which consists of distorted, diagonal stripes in pink, turquoise, topaz-yellow and brown iridized glass like 20.11; other examples are shown in the 'Décors Index' on this site.

24.0124.01

Vase 24.02 has nearly the same shape as 24.01 and the 'Carneol' 24.03 - all similar to PN=I/6724 (1896) - and is another example of 'Hornglas', like 17.03-04, 18.09 and 48.01-03.

24.0224.02

 24.0324.03

Within the last few years a number of examples of a different type of 'Rainbow' glass, as compared to 20.11 and 24.01, have appeared on the market; based on their Dek numbers, some of these can be attributed to Loetz, but many other companies were producing the same or very similar glass, including Harrach, Moser, Webb and Stevens & Williams. The rainbow vases assembled in 24.04-11 show new combinations of colours, new shapes, have an opaque ground, are diagonally optically ribbed, and have gilded decorations on their handles, similar to 2. The original Loetz naming for this different 'Rainbow' glass is not yet known.

24.0424.04

24.0524.0524.0624.06

24.0724.0724.0824.08

 

Vases 24.04-07 show gilded decorations running down their outer ribs, identical to those on the 'Carneol' bowl 18.12. Vase 24.08 is marked Dek=I/14. Bowl 24.06 resembles PN=I/1841 (1885-1890).

24.0924.0924.1024.10

 

24.1124.1124.1224.12

 

 

 

 

 

 

The pair of vases in 24.10 are marked Dek=I/32 and have the shape of PN=I/2222 (1885-1890), and vase 24.09 has the shape we have already met in 14. Finally, 24.05 and 24.11 are further examples of M-crimped rims. The latter two vases exhibit the same gilded décor at the inside of the mouth as 24.07. This type of rainbow glass is also seen with a clear glass ground as shown in the signed Dek=I/14 bowl 24.10.


In 25 seven vases showing the newly identified décor of 7.11-7.14 are grouped together. The décor is characterized by gilded flowering branches in outline and sitting or flying birds similar to 6.04. The vases 25.01-04 have the same shape and vases 25.02, signed by Dek=I/275 as is 7.11; 25.06 and 25.07, share the blue spreading colour.

25.0125.0125.0225.02

25.0325.0325.0425.04 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The popular shape of 25.05 was already seen in 10.01-02, 13.03 and 14.05 and the pinkish-red colour is spreading as in 25.04.

25.0525.05

The pair of vases 25.06 are signed Dek=I/288 and the pair in 25.07 also have the same decoration.

25.0625.0625.0725.07

 

The black vase 25.08 shows a strongly related type of decoration, but may well have been made by Harrach, especially as up to now nothing is known about any Loetz 'black Hyalith' glass production. Vases made of seal-wax red hyalith glass are shown later in 27. The same décor is enamelled on the pair of ivory like vases 25.09, which have a shape related to 25.01-02. Though the latter vases are not signed, the décor and shape strongly suggest, that Loetz also used black 'Hyalith' glass.

25.0825.0825.0925.09

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The same motive as in 25.01-07, a bird sitting on a flowering cherry branch is used in the pair 25.10 with the shape of PN=I/7621 (1898). A vase of same shape with another décor is presented as 25.11.

25.1025.10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25.1125.11

The powers of observation of W.Galle have revealed to us the very first 'Bride's Basket' 26.01 - made by Loetz and identified as Dek=II/5. Almost the same size and shape is seen in the basket in 26.02, with orange spreading to pink in a 'Karoatlas' décor like 7.11.

26.0126.0126.0226.02

Most of the dishes 18.01, 18.02 and 19.06 were actually used with a brass mounting as table centrepieces like 26.03 with a pink dish similar to 26.04. The enamelled chrysanthemum flower is found again in 29.01.

 26.0326.0326.0426.04

 

A bowl with the shape of 26.05 and opaque purple spreading colour as seen in 18.03 is shown with mount in 26.06, and a 'Bride's Basket' in the colour of the vases 14.01, 18.05 and 20.10 can be seen in 26.07.26.0526.0526.0626.0626.0726.07

 

Bowl 26.08 repeats the shape of 18.01-03, but the colour more closely resembles 18.07, 19.04; it is marked Dek=I/4.26.0826.08

 

 

Between 1888-1893, Loetz introduced a very successful family of glass which imitates semi precious stones, including 'Onyx, Marble, Carneol, Malachit, Lapislazuli' and others. These are made by pulling a fine coloured thread over clear glass, usually contrasted against an opal white inner case. The examples shown in 27, on the other hand, consist of a massive sealing-wax red hyalith glass exhibiting very fine veining. This type of glass was very well know within Bohemia and was produced e.g. by Harrach as early as 1764, was used by Friedrich Egermann in the Early Victorian period for his famous 'Lithyalin' glass, and was made by Riedel as well and, later on, by Rindskopf ('Diluvium' glass 1900) and others.

 

 27.0127.0127.0227.02

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

It is reasonable to presume that Loetz exploited this type of glass for its stone like marbling appearance. The pair of vases 27.01 are signed Dek=IV/301. A very similar shape and artistic décor is seen in 27.02. Finally vase 27.03 is made from the same finely veined glass. It follows the spirit of shapes 27.01-02 but is fitted with bronze ormolu as ornamentation rather than being enamelled. From these examples and from vase 25.08 it becomes evident, that not just Harrach and Riedel but also Loetz made 'Hyalith' glass.

27.0327.03

A very popular shape were elliptical bowls PN=I/2272 (1890) covered with ormolu at top and base, related bowls are shown in 18.05-06, 19.02 and the Loetz blanks used in Moser-04 up to Moser-08. This apparent relationship in shape, opaque glass and enameling makes the assignment of these bowls - though not signed - to Loetz quite reasonable.

28.0128.01

28.0228.02

 

28.0328.03

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The mantelpiece set of three vases in 28.03 is made of 'Karoatlas' glass like 28.02, 7.10 - clearly seen at the central bowl - and the taller two vases resemble the shapes of 25.09 and of the Loetz blanks in Moser-02 and-Moser03.

28.0428.04

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 28.0528.05

The bowl 28.04 has a 'Rainbow' décor like 24.09. The 'Karoatlas' bowl 28.05 fully resmbles 28.03, but it is made out of light blue glass.

 

29.0129.01

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The enamelled flying bird in 29.01 nearly matches the birds of the décor seen in 25.01-06 as well as the enlarged birds of 17.13 shown for comparison again in 29.03. The apparent similarity in between 29.02 and 29.03, not only in the bird design, but also in the colours used, proves both vases to be made by the same producer, namely Loetz. 29.01 is the first example of a Loetz vase made of smoky topaz craquelé glass and its shape is representative for the early 'Historicism' time similar to 2.01-03.

29.0229.02

29.0329.03

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The vases shown in 30.01-05 show the strong influence of 'Persian' art onto the European taste in the second half of the 19.th century. Some vases decorated by 'Arabesque' ornaments are already shown in 18.01, 21.01 and 27.01-02. Starting with 30.01, a vase exhibiting the very well known Loetz 'M-crimped' rim and the often seen orange to light pink spreading colour with handles comparable to 7.17, we notice another typical Persian décor made of small gilded blossoms covering densely the complete body. The flowers are painted by using a purple enamelling showing a golden hue, just as the leaves in 7.02-07 were executed.

30.0130.01

The vases 30.02-05 carry the very same décor. They all have a strongly Persian influenced tall elegant shape consisting of an elongated egg like body attached to a long neck with a trumpet like mouth opening. Only 30.02 has an 'M-crimped' rim like 5.03, 16.02-02A and 41.04. In the middle the neck has a typical ring shaped indentation, very well known from Far East vessels and also seen in 27.01-02. All vases sit on a well separated foot with a dotted décor. Example 30.5 is covered by a nicely shaped lid extending the colour spreading from the dark orange bottom to a light green top. The vases 30.02-03, 30.05 have similar handles as seen in 30.01, 36.02 and 7.17. Whereas 30.02-05 have all the same shape of the body, their appearance changes just by the variation of the neck opening or applied handles. While these vases may putatively be made by Loetz, too, similar décors are often ascribed to Harrach and Webb, though signed examples - to the author's knowledge - have not yet been reported. As Loetz delivered blanks to a larger number of bohemian refining companies, the dècor could as well have been made by one of them for export to the British market. 

30.0230.0230.0330.03

30.0430.0430.0530.05

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vases 30.05A,B are a variation of the décor 30.01-05 on pure white opale and orange spreading glass, respectively. Interestingly, the inside of the 'M-crimped' rim is enamelled similarly as the rainbow vases 24.05 and 24.11 and as 30.02, too.

30.05A30.05A

loetz-early-30.05bloetz-early-30.05b

 

 

Vase 30.06 shows a slight variation of the décor 30.01-05. Here the blossoms are enamelled white and blue, only the filaments are gilded, and there are small leaves included. Usually this décor is assigned either to Harrach, Stevens or most often to Webb. Now it is a well known fact, that many vases thought to be of British origin, were actually imported from Bohemia. This vase might easily have been made by Loetz, the characteristique, more deeply cut rim as compared to 17 is described e.g. in PN=I/7884 (1899) as 'ausgeschnittener Rand' and the sketched feet of the paper pattern match, too. Similar tooled rims are shown in PN=I/3266 (1891), II-1/883, II/770-771, II/768 or II/835-836, see also example 35. Nevertheless the assignment of the décor 30.06 is still under debate.

30.0630.06

 

 

Another vase of Persian shape and décor made of ruby red cased clear glass is given in 31.01. The relationship to the vases 30.02-05 is self-evident. The enamelled décor again, consists out of small blossoms spreading completely over the vase. The shape of this vase nearly resembles PN~I/3080 (1890). It shows Loetz like handles as in 18.07, 20.02, 20.11, 24.01-03, 24.06, 31.02 and is made in the spirit of other vases with early PNs I/3145 - I/3148 (1890). The rarely seen, finely enameled Indian décor of 31.02 enlarged in 31.03 PN=L/235 was already met in 23.05 and was used by Loetz lateron in the 'Octopus/Victoria' serious, see [Ricke Vol I page 63.03].

31.0131.0131.0231.0231.0331.03

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A nearly unknown décor of brown and red flecks on a yellow ground, obviously made to imitate the impression of a natural semiprecious stone, is shown in 32.01, it is exhibited at the 'Passau Glass Museum' (PGM) in room 23 showcase 46. A related décor on a similarly shaped vase is 32.02.

32.0132.0132.0232.02

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

33.01 shows oak-tree branches with leaves and acorns enamelled on a cone shaped vase of dark red to pink spreading color. It is the Loetz variation of the renown oak-tree décor of Moser-04.

 

33.0133.0133.0233.02

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The disk like foot is attached to the separately blown cone by pulled up glass threads ending into back curved tear drops. This is clearly seen in the enlargement 33.02 as well as the 'Ast-Optisch' pulled out glass-thorns - later known as 'Astglas' - are visible. This kind of attaching a foot by hot shaped decoration was used by Loetz throughout for many years for sea shells, flowers like 33.03 up to the example 33.04 showing the detailed foot and stem of a Series III vase PN=III/3612 (1927). This method of hiding the attachment point is not known from other companies.

33.0333.0333.0433.04

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vase 33.05-06,08-09 are again 'Ast-Optisch' and 33.06-09 are tube vases, 33.07 with orange spreading to clear glass is made in a rib-optical dècor, all with the same type of foot attachment, but different foots themselves. The vase 33.05 is met again in 57.01 and the clear green vase 33.06 has a simple golden décor like 20.03.

33.0533.05

 

 

 

33.0633.06 

 

33.0733.0733.0933.0933.0833.08

The six champagne glasses in 33.10 exhibit the very same foot as 33.05, the photo is taken from the book [Neuwirth 1905, page 33]. 33.11 shows another example of the Loetz thorny stickvases. In 33.12 and 33.13 the stickvases are décorated by additional flowers and foliage similar to the 'Barock' glass shown in 1.02 and 1.11-13. The vase 33.14 exhibits the very same foot as 33.13.

33.1033.1033.1133.1133.1233.12

33.1333.1333.1433.14

 

As a precious décor enhancement, Loetz often applied coloured glass jewels within the enamelling as in 16.07-09. An overloaded example PN=I/4354 (1892), (II/616 new) in 'Neo-Renaissance' including mixed Rococo style elements is shown in 34.01. Vases of this and/or very similar shape like 7.15, decorated mainly by 'Papilon, Cisele, Rusticana' were often used by Loetz in these years PN=I/7998 (new II/255-258), I/4359 (new II/342).

 

34.0134.01

The central flower motive with oak-tree leaves like 33.01 is found again in the pink opaque vase 34.02, a pure 'Rococo Revival' décor variation, similar to 19.04, 34.04 and to Dek=I/200 in 20.02-04, of same shape is obviously 34.03. Both vases are cased by a bright pink coloured glass over white opal like 18.07, 19.06 and 33.02.

34.0234.0234.0334.03

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The light pink to white opal spreading elegant creamer 34.04, exhibiting a similar décor of gilded garlands with white pearls, could easily have been decorated by Moser, too, using a Loetz blank. This often used colour variation is seen on 2, 7.10, 28.03 and Moser-03-05.

34.0434.04

 

Tooled rims are already seen in 7.19,17 and 30.06. An exaggerate tooled rim is exemplified by the 'Aurora' spreading bowl with coralene décoration 35.01 PN~346/395 (1898) and is e.g. found again in the 'Astglas' bowl 30.07 PN=II/768 (1900). That Loetz made coralene decorated objects is known from 16.05, the décor of 35.01 is similarly found in Harrach and Webb items.

35.0135.01

35.0235.02

 

 

 

Egg shaped vases with tooled rim were popular in this times. The optically ribbed bowl 35.03 PN~II/835 (1900) has a Moser like décor, 35.04 is a 'Pele-Mele' variant and 35.05 is a 'Martele' egg within a bronze ormolu.

35.0335.03

35.0435.04

35.0535.05

The similar tooled rim as 35.01 was used in the carefully 'Coralene' décorated pair of vases 35.06 made of cobalt blue spreading glass with a décoration method already mentioned in 16.05.35.0635.06

An extraordinary example of a Loetz 'Onyx' vase with a tooled rim is 35.07 and a very early 'Barock' vase is 35.08. Similar arrangements of flowers and cornucopia are illustrated by PN=I/3402 and the attached foot is documented in PN=I/3407 (1891-92) already seen in 1.10.

35.0735.0735.0835.08

In 35.09 a set of two yellow cornucopias is combined with a central peonia flower, the foot is similar to 57.01.

35.0935.0935.1035.10

The décor of the light blue bowl 35.10 is discussed in more detail in 42. It is shown here in context with its tooled rim.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The typical Loetz attached foot of 36.01 - already introduced in 33 - and the 'pine needle' décor with jewels shown in 16.07-09 are combined in this early vase. A strongly related décor of two crossing branches is used in 36.02-03, the pink vase has tooled knoty handles as known from 30.

 

36.0136.0136.0236.0236.0336.0336.0436.04

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The décor of 36.04 is the similar to 17.06 and the bright orange colour is used on a number of Loetz vases presented in this article, nevertheless this vase might also have been made by Harrach or Webb. The vase 36.05 has the same décor as 36.02-03 and a remarkably shaped dark green rim similar to PN=2269/2852 (1881-96) and to the much later produced Loetz Ausf-57 vases (1908). The salt-cellar 36.06 is another example of the same décor.

36.0536.05

36.0636.06

 

In 37 vases of a typical Loetz shape with 'M-crimed' rim are shown. They almost seem to match Harrach-02, but the Loetz vase has less ribbs and the body is more extended towards the bottom as compared to Harrach-02. The Dek=I/417 signed vase 37.01 has the very same coralene décor as already seen in 16.07. The thickly enamelling of 37.02-03 reminds onto 36.03 (and would easily have been assigned in earlier times to Harrach). A recent find of another example matching exactly 37.03 carries a unidentified signature I. No 13 , possibly an early Loetz Dek numbering.

37.0137.0137.0237.0237.0337.03

 

The popular 'Jack in the Pulpit' (JIP) shape, introduced by Tiffany, was made in many variations by Loetz, too. In 38.01 a Loetz 'Cisele' JIP vase, the shape influenced by Max Emanuel, London PN=346/335 (1898), is shown and another JIP vase is 33.03. The flower like mouth of a vase was a characteristicum of Art Nouveau and is very well documented by the published Loetz PN's, yet for the early time considered here, the initial floral shapes are unknown. As there are noumerous JIP vases of nearly each European glass producer on the market, an assignment without relevant documentation is a challenge.

38.0138.01

The early JIP vase 38.02 is assigned to Loetz by the striking same orange spreading colour like 7.05A (definitely a Loetz vase)  - for direct comparison both vases are shown together in 38.03 - the only difference is the white opale spreading inner case of 7.05A as compared to the clear glass of 38.01 giving it a more transparent appearence. This orange colour is shown again in the pitcher 54.01-02. The slightly 12-fold waved rim has one tip in front deeply curved down and the opposite back tip pulled up accordingly. The body of the vase is 16-fold optically ribbed.

38.0238.0238.0338.03

 

 

 

The same shape - with 10-fold rim - is seen in the smaller vase 38.04. All JIP vases 38 show Rococo scrollwork enriched by small white flowers, the bright cranberry vase 38.05 has an unique enamelled ornament matching 19.08, but with the central Griffon being replaced by a peacock -shown in full detail in 38.05A - and the tiny white flowers match exactly those of 38.02. Taking all these observations together, the assignment of the JIP vases 38.02-06 to Loetz is evident.

38.0438.0438.0538.0538.05A38.05A

The green JIP vase 38.06 matches the shape of 38.05 as well as the square shaped strongly waved mouth.

38.0638.06

 

 

 

At this time rose bowls were made by all European glass producers and it is practically impossible to make unique assignments. The rose bowl 39.01 has the characteristic orange spreading colour like 33.07 and an enameling of Rococo scrollwork like 38.01. This makes an assignment to Loetz quite plausible.39.0139.01

 

The 'Antique Revival' style peaked around 1865, but the ornaments and shapes were still popular in the 1880's. 40.01 is a vase having the shape of a Greec 'Oinochoe' - a wine carafe - with impressive deep red to pink/purple spreading colour over a white opal inner case - the colour similar to 18.07, 25.04, 26.01 - with a gilded décor of maeander and palmettes (see 22.01) around the neck.

40.0140.01

This vase might well have been made by Loetz, though Harrach and Riedel are also suitable candidates. A strongly related shape could be seen in PN=2269/2961 or similarly in PN=2269/2966 (~1881) ordered by Tschernich&Co, Haida, one of the earliest refining/décorating companies working together with Loetz.

In 41.01 another rare Loetz patented 'Intarsia' vase - signed LW (Loetz Witwe) - exhibiting a almost identical décor like 17.07A - is shown.  The attached handle, made of yellow glass, is known from 30 and is seen again in 41.02, a vase with the already well known orange glass spreading to light purple.

41.0141.0141.0241.02

The pitcher 41.03 and the pair of yellow spreading vases with M-crimped rim 41.04 have a striking similar appearance as 41.02 and are assigned to Loetz, too.

41.0341.03

41.0441.04

The vases like 41.02-04 are currently most often assigned to Stevens&Williams, but they could easily have been made by Loetz for export to the UK market, as might be seen from the documented Loetz beaker 41.05 shown in [Neuwirth 05, page 37]. The applied handle matches those of the pitchers in 4.07A and 54.01.

41.0541.05

A early pink to yellow spreading Loetz vase with M-crimped rim, similar to 41.04, and applications reminding onto likewise decorated items of Harrach or Stevens&Williams is presented in 42.01, 42.01A. In the Loetz vase the wild roses climb freely up to the top surrounding the neck, very differently to the closely attached glass stems known from other producers.

42.0142.0142.01 A42.01 A42.0242.02

 

The blossoms, with a very characteristic Loetz shape, match those of the 'Onyx' vase 42.02 - a gift of Max von Spaun to the Museum of Boehmisch Budweis -  documented in [Ricke page 66.10] and they are exactly sketched in PN=I/7695, I/7695 (1898).

42.0342.03

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The same flowers are found on the application of 42.03, it shows the backside of 17.1 and the missing lower part of the right handle, that would extend across the enameled white flower.

 

On a first sight, the vases presented in 43 look like Loetz 'Carneol', but they are made of transparent orange glass and what looks like scratches are actually faint white pulled threads, more clearly seen in 43.03, an enlargement of the vase with 'M-crimped' rim 43.02, similar in shape to 24.03. The vase 43.01 resembles the shape PN=I/3245 (1891) similarly to the vases with handles seen in 20.10-12.

43.0143.01 43.0243.0243.0343.03

 

 

 

 

The vase 44.01 has an appearance like chinese porcelaine, similar vases are 41.02-42.01. It's shape is the very same as seen in the signed vase 3.07.

44.0144.01

 

The vase 45.01 is a taller version of 18.04, characteristic is the gilded rim - known from 16.09, 20.03 and 33.06 - the opically blown fine pleated ribbs of neck and mouth and the 'Rococo Revival' decoration with girlands of tiny flowers climbing up the neck, these features are seen in all examples of 45. A special feature of 45.01 is the totally gilded bottom, this is known from 18.04 and seen again in 54.01.

45.0145.0145.0245.0245.03 A45.03 A45.03 B45.03 B

The typical Loetz purple colour is already known from examples 18, 20 and many others. The enamelling of the vases 45.03A and 45.03B looks like mirror images on differently coloured glass.

45.0445.0446.0146.0146.0246.02

46.0346.03

 

 

 

The two flattened bottle like vases 46.01-02 exhibit the very same characteristics mentioned in 45. The 24-fold pleated ribbing continues from the very top down to the bottom stand. The mouth is shaped like a half moon and shows 'Persian' influence. A detailed view in 46.03 reveals the 'Aurora' like colour and the shape of the mouth seems to be a foreshadow of the Loetz 'Rosesprinkler' top rims. Nevertheless the assignment of the vases in 45 must be considered with some precaution, as similar examples could well have been made by other Bohemian producers like Harrach and/or were sometimes assigned to French producers like Legras or Baccarat.

 

 

In 47 the light opale purple colour of 4.01-07 and 18 is met again. 47.01 is signed by Dek=I/184. Similarly décorated are the pinkish toned 47.02-03, the latter bearing a paper label referencing to the 'Chikago Expo 1893'.

47.0147.0147.0247.0247.0347.03

 

The 'Hornglass' vase 48.01 exhibits the typical Loetz 'M-crimped' rim combined with two horns attached near to the bottom, a specific feature known from other Loetz vases like 48.02, a 'Bronce Glatt' vase PN=346/711-713 (1898). The overloaded enamelling consisting out of palmettes and garlands give rise to an additionally strange appearance.

48.0148.0148.0248.02

'Hornglass' was introduced in 17.03-04, 18.09 and 24.02, another example with gilded etched rim and enamelling similar to 36.04, 59.03 is shown in 48.03.

48.0348.03

 

The light yellow satin vase 49.01 with pink inner case and extended 'M-crimped' rim is painted in an contemporary almost impressionistic style - in art painting 'Impressionism' peaked arround 1880-1900 -  by orchid flowers. Similarly enamelled orchids are seen in the Loetz-Lobmeyr series 22.05 and again in the light blue opale vase 49.02 with the shape matching 19.01.

 49.0149.0149.0249.02

The orange to pink spreading vase 50.01-02 décorated by flowering branches matches the shape of the signed vase mentioned in 7.02.

50.0150.0150.0250.02

The ruby red vase 51.01 exhibits a peculiar enameled top rim. This is only known from Loetz 'Persica' examples like 20.06 and 51.02. The tiny blossoms spreading over the body remind strongly onto the famous 'Streubluemchen' décor designed much later by Dagobert Peche and often seen on 'Tango' glass in Ausf-165 and Ausf-170. The pink to orange spreading vase 51.03 has a similar rim décor and it's typical Loetz shape is known from 14.01-04 and others.

 51.0151.0151.0251.0251.0351.03

 

 

 

In preceeding examples 14.01, 18.05 and nearly all 'Rainbow' vases in 24, optically blown diagonally ribbed vases were presented. Another two examples are shown here, 52.01 was a gift of Max von Spaun to the 'South Bohemian Museum of Budweis'. Similarly made, but with strong iridescence, 52.02 shows the bright red, possibly 'Camelienrot' colour similar to 19.05-06 and 38.05A-B.

52.0152.0152.0252.02

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A similarly shaped vase as 52.02 is shown by the green spreading glass in 53.01. The wide curved enamelled branch with fruit and leaves shows strong relationship with the décor on Loetz 'Intarsia' vases of 7.16 and 53.02.

53.0153.0153.0253.02

53.0353.03 

The shape of the pink spreading vase 53.03 matches 53.01 and it is nicely enamelled by blue bells.

 

Glass pitchers were quite popular and some examples are already shown in 4.07A, 4.10, 4.10A, 4.11, 4.11A, 7.04A, 7.10, 21.05 and 34.04. Another variation ornamented by small flowers on a gilded branch, similar to Dek=III/26 of 7.02 and 7.09, is the 24-fold optically ribbed blown pitcher 54.01-02 of a deep orange spreading to light pink color as known from 7.02, 7.05, 7.05A and 38.02-03. The shape matches the yellow pitcher 4.07A. Here the bottom is totally covered by a golden surface comparable to 18.04 and 45.01 and comparable to the gilded rim of the vases 20.03, 33.06, 45 and 47.03.

54.0154.0154.0254.02

The shape of 54.03 matches 21.05, but this pitcher is enamelled with the décor of 7.02-05 and 54.01.

54.0354.03

The pitcher 55.01, of similar shape as 54.01, but without feet, is coloured by ruby red to clear and the scrollwork decoration is encountered by its signature Dek=I/861.

55.0155.0156.0156.01

The pitcher 56.01 is characterized by the 'Aurora' colour often used by Loetz and shown in the examples 2.01-06, in the related pitcher 4.11A and in many other vases. A detail of the décor with white blossoms is given in 56.02

56.0256.02

'Aurora' is also used for the thorn vase 57.01. It is similar to 33.05, but in 'Barock' style with an applied peonia flower standing on a thorny branched foot. A wonderful bowl formed by an opened blossom is shown in 57.02.

57.0157.01

 57.0257.02

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The detailed photos 58.01, 58.06 of the peonia blossom of 57.01 shows the very specific Loetz fine structure of one petale, this structure is exactly sketched on many early Loetz paper patterns like PN=I/4056 or I/4072 (1893) and many others. The same petales are seen in 58.02 showing a detailed flower of vase 58.03, thereby proofing its Loetz production, too. These carefull observations were kindly contributed by Leah D. Goodwin.

58.0158.0158.0258.02

The vases 58.03-05 have a JIP-like finely ruffeled top rim and the downwards widening body is décorated by a flowering branch emerging from a ring of upwards pulled tear drops surrounding the bottom rim, the colour is either spreading from yellow to light green, or from dark red to light orange, respectively.

58.0358.0358.0458.04

58.0558.05 58.0658.06

Many companies made 'Peachblown' vases, the most prominent were Webb and Harrach. In 59.01-02 they cannot completely be ruled out as maker, but in 59.01 the Loetz enamelled décor Dek=1374 - used in 23.06 - is seen again, thus making Loetz as producer highly plausible. 59.02 is of same shape, but decorated by a pine needle décor similarly to 17.07. 36.04. The enamelling of the light yellow vase 59.03 with M-crimped rim exhibits another décor variation of 17.14, 48.03 and 59.01.

59.0159.0159.0259.0259.0359.03

 

The yellow spreading vase with the typical Loetz M-crimped rim - compare e.g. with 5.03, 6.08, 8.03, 16.02 - shows a plain décor reminding onto the enamelling known from Webb.

60.0160.01

In 61.01 the thorn décor already seen in the tube vases 33 is applied to a clear glass vase with an attached second opening tube, more clearly visible in the detail 61.02. The overall appearence is a beforehand of the later 'Astartig' décor, an example of which is shown in 61.03 PN=II/1342 (1904), where you can observe the advance in shaping more opening tubes arrising from a central bulbous body as compared to the attachment in 61.02.

61.0161.0161.0261.0261.0361.03

 

A combination of tooled rim with thorny surface is introduced in 62. In the large vase 62.01 the funnel shaped top piece is attached to the sperical body - containing two openings with tooled rims - by the Loetz typical pulled tear drops detailed in 62.02 and already introduced in 33. The same décoration is applied to 62.03 and similarly seen in 62.04, too.

62.0162.0162.0262.02

62.0362.0362.0462.04

 

The rubin bowl standing on bright green feet with a décor similarly made as in 20.11-12 is shown as an example of the Loetz tooled treetrunk shaped feet, discussed in 64.

63.0163.01

Loetz made many different types of feet as stands for their vases. In the following comparison, we will concentrate on treetrunk like tooled feet, all shown in 64 in the order of vases as they appear in this article. Common typical features are the attachment by 3 roots, most often tooled to give rise to outreaching succesive flat scales and/or screwed thorns. Similar feet may also be observed on items attributed to Stevens&Williams, some of which actually may have been made by Loetz for the British market and are currently wrongly assigned.

64.01 foot of 1.0864.01 foot of 1.0864.02 feet of 30.0664.02 feet of 30.06

 

64.03 feet of 35.0164.03 feet of 35.0164.04 feet of 35.0664.04 feet of 35.06

64.05 foot of 35.1064.05 foot of 35.1064.06 foot of 54.0164.06 foot of 54.01

64.07 feet of 62.0164.07 feet of 62.0164.08 feet of 62.0364.08 feet of 62.03

64.09 feet of 63.0164.09 feet of 63.0164.10 feet of the Loetz blank for Moser-1164.10 feet of the Loetz blank for Moser-11

 

 

 

Similar vases made by Graf Harrach, Neuwelt.

Finally, let us look at some similar décors made by Graf Harrach, a much larger Bohemian glassworks of the period, renowned for its high quality artistic glassware, in order to differentiate them from some of the described Loetz products. Vases Harrach-01-03 have the same 'M-crimped' rim motif as the Loetz examples 6.01,8.01-02, 16.01-06, 24.01-02,10, 37 and others.

Harrach-01Harrach-01Harrach-02Harrach-02

 

 

Harrach-02 and the pair of marbled vases Harrach-03 are exhibited at the Harrach Glass Museum in Nový Svět (formerly Neuwelt). Sometimes, one must be careful in using pieces from the Harrach museum for assignment, as it is known, that Harrach collected interesting pieces of other producers, to be used as references for it's own production purposes. So Harrach-02 actually might still be a Loetz vase like those shown in 37.

 

 Harrach-03Harrach-03Harrach-04Harrach-04

Harrach copied many of Loetz's semi-precious stone décors, including 'Onyx' Harrach-04 and 'Carneol' Harrach-05,-06.

 

 

Harrach-05Harrach-05Harrach-06Harrach-06

 

Harrach-07Harrach-07

A rainbow vase marked with the Harrach feather plume is shown in Harrach-07, and a pitcher in Harrach-08, the shape of which is shown in 'From Neuwelt to the whole World', page 255 pitcher 9/41. 

Harrach-08Harrach-08Harrach-09Harrach-09

 

 

The only - known to the author - fully signed '891/3 B.295' vase in the Loetz 'Hornglas' like décor of 17.03-04, 24.02 and 48 is the pitcher shown in Harrach-09.

 Harrach-10Harrach-10

The fully signed vase Harrach-10 exhibits almost the same shape, though much larger, and colour as Loetz 7.02. Of course, the enamelling is quite different as compared to the vases shown in series 7. The 'Malachit' vase Harrach-11 was shown at the 'Great London Exhibition' in 1862 (PN=618 AH 288 1860) and was made much earlier than the Loetz décor of the same naming.

harrach-11harrach-11

This very short list of Harrach pieces indicates how difficult it is to make correct attributions when two or more companies are making closely related décors.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moser using Loetz blanks

 In 1895, Moser started his own glass production at Meierhoefen and concentrated onto clear cut and engraved objects. Up until then Moser was purely a glass refining/decorating company which got its glass blanks from various Bohemian companies. His main partners were Harrach at Neuwelt and Meyr's Neffe Adolf at Winterberg. Here we will show clear evidence that Loetz blanks were also extensively used, as already mentioned in 20.07 and 20.08. The bowl Moser-01 is the same as Loetz 18.05 and 18.06, but it is decorated by the renown Moser wine-leaves enamelling around the top rim.
 

Moser-01Moser-01Moser-02Moser-02

 

The pair of signed vases Moser-02 have same colour and similar décor as Moser-01. Moser-03,-04,-05 are variations in light pinkish to purple glass, decorated by typical Moser enamelling.Moser-03Moser-03

Moser-04Moser-04

 

Moser-05Moser-05

The vases Moser-06,-07,-08 are orange spreading to light purple, as Loetz 7.03,-05,10.01 and 12.02.Moser-06Moser-06

Moser-05 and -07 have the same enamelling and almost the same shape as the Loetz Octopus vase PN=I/3116 (1890), included here for shape comparison. Also matching shapes are seen in Moser-04,-06 and -08, similar to PN=I/2272 (1890).Moser-07Moser-07

 Loetz OctopusLoetz Octopus

 Moser-08Moser-08Moser-09Moser-09

 

Moser-09 is simply coloured spreading orange like Loetz 20.9. Vases Moser-02,-04,-05,-06,-07 and -09,-10 are all explicitly signed 'Moser'. These examples show the high quality of Loetz blanks, refined by exquisite Moser enamelling to create sumptuous art-glass objects.

 

The cornucopia vase Moser-10 shows a foot attachment like 33 and is a Loetz blank, too - pink spreading as Moser-03 to Moser-06.

Moser-10Moser-10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There exist numerous examples of Moser décorated vessels having a tooled rim like Moser-11. From the similar Loetz examples shown in 35 it is straight forward to assume, that the blanks of many of them were obtained from Loetz, too.

Moser-11Moser-11

Moser-Rainbow shows a rare signed Moser 'Rainbow' vase, made at Meierhoefen, which can be compared with the Loetz examples 20.11, 24.01 and Harrach-07. 

Moser-RainbowMoser-Rainbow

 

 

Outlook

 

I hope that this article may provide a skeleton upon which our knowledge of early Loetz production may grow. The 404 photos give a good visual impression of these early Loetz styles, just as the 19th Century was drawing to a close. The emphasis of the article is upon coloured opal glass, alongside some examples of clear glass. I have not considered in this article well known décors, such as the semi precious stones imitations, which are extensively documented on this website. Attributions of key pieces are based upon PNs, with 73 references, and Dek numbers, and additional pieces have been included based on shape and/or colour similarity. The article documents many new attributions to Loetz, including 'Barock' glass flowers, 38 décors by Dek numbers, and examples of 'Hornglas', 'Karoatlas',' Karo-Optisch', 'Ast-Optisch', 'black Hyalith', 'Coralene' and 'sealing-wax red Hyalith' as well as early craquelé and cut glass and Persian influenced shapes and décors. Examples of Loetz 'Bride's Baskets' and 'Jack in the Pulpit', thorn vases and early pitchers are also shown. A cooperation in between Loetz and Moser is identified and illustrated by 11 examples. The majority of the glass shown in this article was made between 1890 and 1898. From the glass presented in this article it becomes clear, that Loetz belonged to the technically and artistically leading hollow glass producing companies. Loetz reached a very high level of handicraft and artistry grounding thereby its future success of the Art Nouveau 'Phaenomen Genre' décors peaking at the Paris World-Exhibition in 1900. The author is well aware that the methods used to make attributions are limited, and that errors may occur, also that it will be virtually impossible to extend such an analysis to the years before 1880. The attribution of Loetz cut glass lies outside the scope of the article, indeed research into this field has barely even begun, see also at [Hass].

 

Acknowledgements

 

The author is very grateful to all members of the Loetz Advisory Board for discussions and fruitful suggestions, and especially to the editors of this website, Deb Petersen Fitzsimmons and Tony Ellery, for their encouragement and their constructive contributions as well as careful editing of the article. Especially sincere thanks go to Warren Galle; his excellent research, partly included here, provided key additions to the knowledge and data that I have collected over the past 25 years. I am also very grateful to the dedicated collectors who kindly contributed many of the examples referenced in this article. I'm particularly grateful to Alisa C. for generously contributing many photos from her fine collection, 'The gilded Curio' to this article. Her examples provided many insights essential for this study. My thanks also go to Michelle Bosch, Penny Herrod and Leah D. Goodwin for their permanent interest and their contributions to this work. Lastly I would like to thank Mike Moir for his valuable and critical discussions.

 

Photo Credits

 

This overview of early Loetz production has only been possible thanks to the ever increasing number of photos of glass appearing on the internet as the online market for antiques expands.

 US, European and German law (UrhG 52) explicitly allow the use of publicly available photos in research. Nevertheless, the author is indebted to all of the anonymous owners of photos used, and would be interested to hear who they are, so he can thank them personally. Without their contributions, this article could not have been made.

There follows the source used for each of the photos included: example numbers are separated by a colon, the photos themselves by a semicolon.

Auctions: Company.month.year.lot:example

 

  • Ahlers&Ogletree, USA 09.2015.235:17.09;10.2015.260:28.02;10.2008.104:35.06;
  • Ann&Co, USA 12.2005.765:7.11-12;
  • Boca Raton, USA 09.2015.031:30.05;10.2016.103:45.03B;
  • Bonhams, GB 05.2005.434:20.07;
  • Burchard, USA 04.2009.052:21.03;07.2015.1141:25.06;08.2016.1024:16.02A;
  • Bruce Kodner, USA 06.2017.211:51.03;
  • Brunk, USA 01.2017.772:18.04B;
  • Tonya Cameron, USA 06.2011.134:48.01;
  • Constantine&Pletcher, USA 08.2014.150:45.02;
  • Dallas-09.2003.1107:11.03;
  • Dan Morphy, USA 09.2008.026:Moser-03;
  • Dorotheum, Austria 03.2016.116:7.18:
  • Du Mouchelles, USA 01.2016.1072:17.10,42.03;
  • Doyle-NY, USA 09.2014.603A:18.04;
  • Elite, USA 04.2015.145:28.04;
  • Evans, USA 07.2015.112:30.02;
  • Jeffrey S. Evans, USA 07.2016.1632:7.04A;09.2015.655:14.05;01.2014.884:16.06;01.2014.1000:24.10;
  • 01.2016.1732:25.10;01.2015.746:30.01;01.2014.885:34.04;07.2016.1679:30.05A;02.2016.1646:33.08;
  • 01.2015.351:36.06;
  • Fieldings auctioneers Ltd., GB 04.2016.010:1.03;04.2017.373:1.13;03.2015.313:3.02;05.2015.208:3.05;10.15.243:3.07;03.2015.323:3.09;
  • 03.2016.245:4.10;03.2016.211:5.01;08.2015:7.10;04.2017.253:12.05;03.2014.170:19.02;09.11.376:25.04
  • Fine Arts, USA 03.2014.275:Moser-02;
  • Dr. Fischer, Germany 10.2010.450:6.03;09.2012.477:17.07B;03.2010.433:20.06;06.2015.189:20.08;10.2016.363:22.06;03.2006.1486:23.06;
  • 06.2015.198:Moser-05;10.2015.298:26.6;06.2015.199:Moser-08;
  • Fontaines, USA 09.2015.069:3.06;09.2017.209:62.01-02;
  • Forsythes', USA 12.2012.331:24.08;
  • Gary Don, GB 07.2017.186:6.06;
  • Hampel, Germany 09.17.1263:61.01-02;
  • Hatman, USA 07.2017.7199:7.10C;
  • Leslie Hindman, USA 02.2016.092:7.09;02.2016.092:33.09;
  • Historia, Germany 05.2015.29:18.04C;
  • Homestead, USA 01.2016.1105:47.02;
  • Horst, USA 02.2012.118:30.05B;
  • Houston, USA 09.2015.238:18.04C;
  • Hotel des Ventes Metz, France 01.2017.388:45.01;
  • Jackson's, USA 06.2006.1431,detail:16.08;09.2014.264,detail:23.05;03.2012.1083:26.02;
  • W.J.Jenack, USA 01.2013.240:15.07;
  • J.K.Galleries, USA 01.2008.417:36.02;
  • Leonard Joel, Australia 02.2017.4204:1.12;
  • James D. Julia, USA 06.2014.1126:19.04;
  • Kastern, Germany 03.2015.671:24.09;
  • Kinsky, Austria 02.2016.854:52.01;
  • J. Levine, USA 03.2016.3061:25.11;
  • Maple Glen, USA 01.2014.414373:34.02;
  • Martin, USA 10.2014.110:15.05;
  • MBA Seattle, USA 07.2014.057:13.02;07.2017.134:7.19;
  • Mc Innis, USA 04.2015.115:25.09;
  • Mossgreen, Ausralia 04.2016.1202:37.03;
  • Northgate, USA 06.2017.344:13.06
  • Pechtree&Bennett, USA 11.2015.483:7.10A;08.2017.103:13.07;
  • Premier Auction, USA 12.2006.525:26.04;
  • Professional Appraisers, USA 04.2010.356:26.07;
  • Quittenbaum, Germany 05.2013.346:33.03;
  • Rago, USA 01.2005.053:16.05;04.2013.1367:61.03;
  • Rosebery's, USA 06.2011.034:15.09;
  • Satow, Germany 11.2015.426:28.01;
  • Soulis, USA 04.2017.238:11.04;04.2017.148:50.01-02;07.2017.3102:60.01;
  • Skinner USA 01.2016.585:28.03;
  • Sterling ,USA 03.2014.079:har-06;
  • Stevens, USA 11.2015.007:45.03A
  • Stony Ridge, USA 06.2014.290,detail:6.05;
  • Strawser, USA 09.2007.1495:26.03;
  • The Bider, Israel 07.2017.799:53.03
  • H.G.Webber, USA 07.2016.021:10.06;
  • Woody, USA 08.2014.173:1.01;08.2014.340:7.03;08.2014.085:17.07;11.2012.053:17.08;07.2016.017:19.08;
  • 08.2014.032:24.04;03.2014.023:24.05;11.2012.089:24.07;08.2014.066:24.11;08.2014.046:har-08;08.2014.059:30.03;05.2014.129:32.0;04.2016.172:36.0;05.2014.110:37.02
  • Zezula, Czech.Rep. 12.2015.232:27.01;04.2014.327:27.02;11.16.543:43.02-03
  •  

Author 1.08-1.9;2.01-2.04;6.01-02;7.01;7.05A;15.10-11;17.05-06;19.06-07;20.01;20.03-04;20.11;21.06;

22.03-04;23.4;42.01-02;49.01-02;51.02;har-05;27.03;31-02-03;33.04;35.05;38.01-03;38.05-05A;40.01;

54.01-02;har-11 

 

Collectors Weekly: name:example

Alfredo:9.02;

bohemianglassandmore:11.01-02;3.03;4.01;4.03;9.01-03;16.03;17.14;18.01;18.03;21.01;25.08;48.03;

czechman:35.01;

glassiegirl:4.11;37.01; getthatmon:har-07;

LoetzBuddies:4.02; Mac63:22.01; MacArt:16.04;

Moonstonelover21:3.01;3.10;4.05;7.05;10.02;12.05;14.01;15.01;18.05;34.03;

Olebodie:7.01A

Shawnl: 41.03

SteveS:1.10; Vetraio50:1.06; VioletOrange:30.06;

Alisa's  Collection-number:example:

570:4.04;437:6.04;866:7.04;1032:7.13-14;29.03;917:8.03;533:10.01;238:10.03;275:10.05;237:12.01;274:12.02;

447:13.01;1130:13.04;273:16.01;394:17.03;396:17.04;398:18.09;235:20.05;053:21.04;934:26.06;

 

Pinterest name:example

Ann Levin:32.02

Brandi:35.09

 

Ebay  Country Date:example

Ebay Austria 04.2012:18.02;06.2015:18.11;

Ebay Canada 09.2016:15.03B;

Ebay GB 05.2015:1.09;06.2014:3.03;03.2015:17.02;04.2016:22.05;01.2016:29.01-02;06.2013:4.13-14;

11.2016:20.09A;10.2013:har-04;

Ebay France 04.2014:4.08;05.2012:9.04;12.2014:14.03;04.2014:16.01;06.2013:23.01;04.2014:24.06;

09.2015:20.19;09.2012:35.02;05.2016:46.02-03;06.2016:51.01;

Ebay Germany 02.2014:14.04;02.2011:15.04;02.2013:20.10;08.2017:28.05;08.2013:35.04;07.2015:36.03;01.2016:46.01;

02.2012:52.02;06.2016:53.02;07.2017:6.07-08;

Ebay USA 08.2013:1.02;09.2009:1.05;11.2006:1.06;07.2014:1.11;01.2014:4.03;02.2014:4.06;

05.2015:5.02;11.2015:5.03;02.2015:7.02;06.2014:7.04;11.2014:7.06;06.2015:7.07;06.2015:7.08;03.2016:7.10B;

01.2016:7.17;11.2010:8.01;11.2016:10.5;02.2017:11A;11.2016:13.05;04.2015:14.02;09.2011:15.01;10.2013:15.02;

03.2016:15.03A;06.2014:15.06;09.2017:15.08A;02.2014:16.02;02.2015:18.07;12.2013:18.08;11.2012:18.09;

02.2012:18.10;08.11:19.01;10.2013:20.02;01.2016:20.12;02.2015:21.05;09.2015:21.07;01.2014:23.02;

11.2014:23.07;06.2013:24.02;02.2015:25.01-0;04.2015:25.05;06.2015:30.04;01.2016:31.01;

12.2015:33.01,33.02;07.2017:33.11;12.2015:34.01;08.2015:35.03;02.2017:35.07;07.2017:35.10;01.2013:36.04;

07.2016:36.05;08.2016:38.04;08.2018:38.06;11.2015:41.02;11.2014:41.04;11.2016:44.01;08.2014:45.03;

11.2016:47.01;01.2016:47.03;09.2015:48.02;04.2017:55.01;05.2017:56.01;06.2014:58.05-06;06.2017:59.03;

10.2016:62.0310.2013:63.01;;09.2013:har-01;09.2013:har-02;04.2014:har-09;

08.2015:Moser-09;08.2023:Moser-10;=6.2016:Moser-11;02.2013:Loetz Octopus;

 

Personal contributors:

Alisa C. 17.01;

Michelle Bosch 17.15;18.13;

Anita Candle 19.02-03;

Josette Cleghorn 54.03;

chris Cope 35.08;

Warren Galle 11.01;12.03;17.07A;26.01;41.01;har-10;

Leah D. Goodwin 4.07A;7.02A;10.07;12.04;57.01-02;58.01-04;59.01-02;62.04;

Penny Herrod 2.06;4.12;7.10;33.12;33.14;

Marty Hoenig 33.13;

Robert Howard 19.09;

David Littlefield 8.02;

Mike Moir 17.13;19.03;

Dave Peterson 24.10;

Rosa Maria Mas&Thomas 9.01;25.07;

Brian Severn 16.07;20.09;har-03;

TooBi Ltd.MA:24.03;

Zelda 21.05;

 

Unknown:13.03;16.09;19.04;21.04;25.01;43.01;53.01;Moser-06;Moser-07;Moser-Rainbow;

 

Museum:

Museum PASK 'Pavilon Of Glas, Klatovy',Czechoslovakia: 1.04 photo by Tony Ellery;

33.13 photo by Deb Petersen Fitzsimmons;

25.0825.08

Glas Museum Passau: 4.01;15.08 photos by Deb Petersen Fitzsimmons;

Suedboehmisches Museum Budweis, Czech. Rep.: 42.02 photo from [Ricke,page 66.10];

Museum Sumavy, Susice a Kasperske Hory: 0.01 photo taken from [Lnen 1999, page 35]

 

Literature:

[Hass] Kai Hasselbach 'A study of Loetz cut glass Production' under 'Featured articles' on this web site

[Lněničková] Jitka Lněničková:'Loetz/Series II. Paper Patterns for Glass from 1900 to 1914'

[Lnen 1999]  Jitka Lněničková:'Johann Loetz Glas aus dem Boehmerwald 1824-1939'

[Neuwirth 1900] Waltraud Neuwirth:'Loetz Austria 1900', Selbstverlag 1986

[Neuwirth 1905] Waltraud Neuwirth:'Loetz Austria 1905-1918', Selbstverlag 1986

[Ricke] Ed.:H.Ricke, T.Vlcek, A.Adlerova, E.Ploil 'Loetz Boehmisches Glas 1880-1940' Vol I Werkmonographie, Vol II Katalog der Musterschnitte, 1989 Prestel

[Schmidt] R.Schmidt:'100 Jahre Oesterreichische Glaskunst, Lobmeyr 1823-1923', Wien 1925